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This crisis of mass immigration and sub-replacement fertility is an assault on the European people that, if not combated, will ultimately result in the complete racial and cultural replacement of the European people. To see this in full effect, you only have to look at the population statistics in. LD: This is the complete text of Brenton Tarrants Manifesto, “The Great Replacement”, published here purely for reference purposes. It is extremely long, and most people wont have time to read it. If you have time, read it; you will learn much from it. If you dont have time, dip into it and read a few bits and pieces here and there.
Link download : Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no.
The Great Replacement - Il Foglio
Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the Australia-born terrorist responsible for the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand on 15 March 2019, that killed 51 people and injured 49, named his manifesto The Great Replacement, a. Joshua James-Oblivion Series 1-4. Read : The Great Replacement by Brenton Tarrant. The Revolution of Birdie Randol - Brandy. The Great Replacement - The Brenton Tarrant Manifesto "I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it” - Evelyn Beatrice Hall. Download the PDF Download Video (BitTorrent Magnet Link) ⠀. Great Replacement.
China Report – Issue 79 – December. Secrets-of-millionaire-mind[Samfusion]PDF. The Great Replacement (Translations of Brenton. 50 Assorted Magazines - January 03 2020. Material in connection with Brenton Tarrant, the alleged gunman behind the killing of 50 individuals at two mosques in New Zealand, is drying up; his manifesto, for one, is being disaggregated and spread through multiple forms, removed from their various parts with blunt razors. Doing so does a disservice to any arguments that might be mounted against him, but having a debate is not what this is generally about.
Reading Manifestos: Restricting Brenton Tarrants. Read : The Great Replacement by Brenton Tarrant Confession and real truth of New Zealand shoot out at mosques in Christchurch. In this article you can understand why he shoot out. The Great Replacement - The Brenton Tarrant. D-Photo – October 01. Bake from Scratch – January 01. The Great Replacement (Translations of Brenton Tarrant's Manifesto) English, German, Croatian, Hungarian, Spanish, Portuguese, Bulgarian, French.
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Hōʻikeʻike Brenton Tarrant: ʻO ke kumu kūʻai kumu pahu hou o Christchurch. Brenton Tarrant: 5 Pono Mau Pono Pono e ʻike.
Heluhelu Manifestos: Hoʻopili i ka Brenton Tarrant's Nui. Ua hōʻike ʻo Tarrant i kāna kīhāpai "Nui Ka Hoʻopuka Lāwai" -aila manifesto pūnaewele 74 74-ʻaoʻao ma mua o ka pepehi ʻana i nā poʻe 51. 3 I ka lā ma hope o ka pana ʻana o Christchurch, kāhea wau iā Camus i waho o ka polū, e hōʻike ana no The. ʻO kēia Hoʻonui Nui - ua hoʻonohonoho ʻia ʻo Brenton Tarrant ma ka Pōʻalima, 24 Ianuali 2020.
Ua kapa ʻia ʻo Brenton Tarrant e kona inoa ʻo ia ka mea pana kuleana no ka luku nui ʻana o Christchurch ma New Zealand ... Ma waho aʻe o ke kahe ʻana i ka hoʻouka kaua ma Facebook Live, ua waiho iki nō ia ma hope mai kahi manamana i kapa ʻia "The Great Replacement. He hoʻoweliweli kūʻē, ua kākau aku ʻo Tarrant. i kahi palapala 74-ʻaoʻao e wehewehe ana i kāna mau kumu no ka mea e pepehi ai, me ka hoʻopiʻi ʻana i ka hoʻokahū o ka lehulehu. Mea kākau: Tarrant Brenton Puka Uila: ʻO ka Hoʻolālā Nui Na ʻĀpana hou E hele mākou i mua o ka makahiki: 2019 Link download: Mai hele i ka pō maikaʻi ʻole, e ʻā nā kuhi kahiko a hoʻomālamalama i ka lā o ke ao; Noho, inaina me ka make o ka mālamalama. PDF ʻO Ka Hoʻolaha Nui - Il Foglio. Ua ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo Tarrant ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu i kahi hōʻailona 74-ʻaoʻao i kapa ʻia ʻo "The Great Replacement" kahi kuhikuhi i ka "E Hoʻohiʻi Nui" a me "the genocide white" theiirele.  138 Ua ʻōlelo ʻia he hoʻolālā ʻia nā kiki ʻana i ʻelua mau makahiki ma mua, a ua koho ʻia ke wahi i ʻekolu mau mahina ma mua. [139.
"ʻO ka Hoʻolaha Nui" kahi ʻike maopopo a ʻano ikaika hoʻi o kēia kaʻenehana. Ma kāna palapala hōʻike, hōʻike ʻia ʻo Brenton i nā ʻano kihi ponoʻī ʻo Candace Owens me ka hoʻomaka ʻana i kona ʻano radicalization. Ua i mai ʻo ia. I kēlā me kēia manawa i ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo ia, ua pīhoihoi wau e kāna mau ʻike a me kona mau manaʻo ponoʻī e hoʻolei iaʻu a hoʻonui hou i ka hilinaʻi o ka hana kolohe. Ma kahi o 1.40 p.m. manawa i ka wā, i mākaʻi pū ʻia ka mea i ʻike ʻia e like me 28 kona inoa ʻo ʻAmelika i kapa ʻia ʻo Brenton Tarrant i hoʻoulu ʻia i nā hale pule ʻelua i Christchurch, me ka make ʻana o ka nui o nā poʻe. Ua pani koke ʻia ʻo Brenton Tarrant Police i ke kūlanakauhale e pane ai, me nā kula a me nā hale aupuni.
ʻO Brenton Harrison Tarrant, ka mea hoʻoweliweli i hānau ʻia ma Australia e pili ana i ka pana ʻana i ka hale pule ma kā Christchurch ma Al Noor Mosque a me Linwood Islamic Center ma Christchurch, New Zealand ma 15 Malaki 2019, ʻo ia ka mea i pepehi iā 51 a hōʻeha ʻo 49, ka inoa o kāna mau manifesto The Great replacement, a reference i kā Kamaka puke.
ʻO New Zealand Shooter Brenton Tarrant e wehe iā Manifesto 'ʻO ke Hoʻolaha Nui' Me Dylan Thomas Poem 'Mai hele i kēlā pō maikaʻi ʻole' Charisse Van Horn Mar 15, 2019 6:56 AM PDT 0. ʻO Christchurch attacker livestreamed shooting spree, hoʻopuka.
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The great replacement - brenton tarrant area. The great replacement - brenton tarrant county. Report Share Twitter Facebook Embed Download. The great replacement - brenton tarrant center. Twitter/Facebook Brenton Tarrant posted a manifesto link on Twitter. Brenton Tarrant, whose Facebook page streamed a graphic and extremely disturbing live video showing him gunning down people praying in a Christchurch mosque, posted links to a rambling “manifesto” on Twitter that he dubbed “The Great Replacement. ” It’s basically a grievance document that lays out Tarrant’s twisted beliefs that mass murder is justified by immigration and European birthrates. In one especially bizarre section, the gunman presents a list of questions that he assumes people will want to know (why he did it, who influenced him, and so on). He then answers the questions in the lengthy document. Overall, he’s motivated by a perception of white victimhood that he believes justifies violence. “We must crush immigration and deport those invaders already living on our soil, ” he wrote. “It is not just a matter of our prosperity, but the very survival of our people. ” In it, he says he received the blessing from a group called the “reborn Knights Templar” (after the Christian soldiers during the Crusades) and indicates he was inspired by Norwegian mass murderer Anders Breivik, who also wrote a manifesto that talked about a reborn Knights Templar, although prosecutors thought Breivik made it up to inspire others. You can read more about Breivik and the so-called reborn Knights Templar here. The gunman flashed a white power sign in his first court appearance. Getty Brenton Tarrant in court. You can see a summary of the manifesto’s core points below, along with a few screenshots of excerpts. Heavy is choosing not to run the full manifesto because of the horrific nature of the mass shooting. Authorities now say that 50 people were shot and killed at two mosques, and another 20 people were wounded. The gunman’s live video shows him repeatedly shooting helpless people, and his Twitter page contained photos of weapons with the names of other mass shooters on them. The gunman states in his manifesto that he believes whites are facing “genocide” and admits that he acted in part because of race. He also brings up some famous names, including Donald Trump, Candace Owens, Michael Jackson, and Madonna. In addition, a person who appeared to be the same gunman also posted a link to the live video and manifesto in a chat thread called 8chan, which is described by The New York Times as “an online forum known for extremist right-wing discussion. ” The user wrote, “Well lads, it’s time to stop sh*tposting and time to make a real life effort post. I will carry out and attack against the invaders, and will even live stream the attack via facebook. ” Various contributors to the extremely disturbing chat thread then cheered the writer on, with some posting Nazi symbols. “Best of luck Brenton Tarrant, ” wrote one. “Brenton Tarrant is a f*cking hero” wrote another, as they watched it unfold live, sharing screenshots. One of the first victims to be identified is Daoud Nabi; his son told NBC News that his dad heroically died while trying to shield another person. You can read a tribute to him here. You can see a roundup of tributes to all of the victims here as their names are released. Here’s what you need to know: Brenton Tarrant Explains His Background Part of the Brenton Tarrant manifesto. The end of the manifesto proclaims, “Europa arises. ” It also contains the bizarre question-and-answer section that reads like an interview. Who is he? The manifesto poses the question he knew many would wonder. “Just a ordinary white man, 28 years old, ” the manifesto explains. “Born in Australia to a working class, low income family. My parents are of Scottish, Irish and English stock. I had a regular childhood, without any great issues. I had little interest in education during my schooling, barely achieving a passing grade. ” He claimed he invested in “bitconnect, ” used the money to travel, and added, “I am just a regular white man, from a regular family. Who decided to take a stand to ensure a future for my people. ” The prime minister has called the mosque gunman an extremist right-wing terrorist and revealed he’s an Australian citizen. The Shooter Is Obsessed With Birthrates The top of the manifesto contains this drawing. The manifesto is basically a lengthy rant of supposed racial grievance. One thing that really upsets the killer: Birthrates. “It’s the birthrates. It’s the birthrates. If there is one thing I want you to remember from these writings, its that the birthrates must change, ” he writes. “Even if we were to deport all Non-Europeans from our lands tomorrow, the European people would still be spiraling into decay and eventual death. ” The manifesto also rants about “mass immigration” in juxtaposition to European birthrates. He calls it a “crisis of mass immigration and sub-replacement fertility” and calls that “an assault on the European people. ” Tarrant’s Manifesto Threatens Some Prominent People Twitter A photo from the gunman’s Twitter page. In another spot, the manifesto rants about killing prominent politicians: “KILL ANGELA MERKEL, KILL ERDOGAN, KILL SADIQ KHAN. ” He urges people to kill “high profile enemies, ” saying that German Chancellor Angela Merkel, “the mother of all things anti-white and anti-germanic, is top of the list. ” Asked why he is resorting to violence, he explained, “There is no nation in the world that wasn’t founded by, or maintained by, the use of force. Force is power. History is the history of power. Violence is power and violence is the reality of history. Wake up. ” The Australian citizen said that “Australian (sic) is a European colony, particularly of British stock and thereby an extension of Europe. ” He said he blamed immigrants and capitalists and added, “I blame both, and plan to deal with both. ” On the Reason He Attacked Muslims A brief section from the lengthy manifesto. The shooter makes it clear. He intended to attack Muslims. The manifesto refers to Turks as “roaches” and orders them to “flee to your own lands, while you still have the chance. ” He claimed that European men “are to blame. Weak men have created this situation and strong men are needed to fix it. ” As to why he attacked Muslims, he wrote, “They are the most despised group of invaders in the West, attacking them receives the greatest level of support. ” He ranted about climate change, saying that by killing “the invaders” he could “kill the overpopulation and by doing so save the environment. ” On Conservatism Screenshot of the Tarrant video Part of his manifesto contains a passage headlined “to conservatives. ” “Conservatism is dead. Thank God. Now let us bury it and move on to something of worth, ” he wrote. He criticized conservatives for conserving nothing. “The natural environment is industrialized, pulverized and commoditized, ” he wrote. “Western culture is trivialized, pupled and blended into a smear of meaningless nothing. ” Another section was headlined “to Christians. ” He wrote, “Let our lives be stronger than death to fight against the enemies of the Christian people. ” On Antifa The shooter aims through a door into another room Another passage was headlined “to Antifa/Marxists/Communists. ” He explained, “I do not want to convert you…I want you in my sights. I want your neck under my boot. ” On Celebrity Culture The manifesto trashes “suicidal, nihilistic and degenerate pop icons produced from a dead culture, ” mentioning Michael Jackson, Madonna, Kurt Cobain, and Freddie Mercury. The Killer’s ‘Green Nationalism’ Twitter A screenshot from Brenton Tarrant’s now-suspended Twitter page. Perhaps bizarrely, the gunman’s manifesto combines environmentalism with racism. He considers himself an “eco-fascist. ” When He Became Radicalized Brenton Tarrant Twitter retweet The manifesto said there was a period of time that “dramatically changed my views, ” saying it was from April to May 2017. He felt that a “series of events…revealed the truth of the Wests (sic) current situation. ” He decided at that time that a “violent, revolutionary solution” was needed. Tarrant said he was traveling as a tourist in Western Europe to France, Spain, Portugal and other countries when there was a “terror attack in Stockholm” on April 7, 2018. The difference was “Ebba Akerlund. Young, innocent and dead Ebba, ” he wrote. The next pivotal moment was the 2017 French General election. He described the candidates as “a globalist, capitalist, egalitarian… a milquetoast, feckless, civic nationalist, ” and so on. He traveled to French towns and decided “for every French man or woman there was double the number of invaders. ” Whether He Belongs to a Group The gunman approaches the mosque front door. He said he was “not a direct member of any organization or group, though I have donated to many nationalist groups and have interacted with many more. ” He said “no group ordered my attack. I make the decision myself. Though I did contact the reborn Knights Templar for a blessing in support of the attack, which was given. ” He said he expects to be “forgotten quickly. Which I do not mind. After all I am a private and mostly introverted person. ” On Planning the Attack The gunman gets his weaponry from his car. Tarrant said he had planned the attack for two years and had chosen Christchurch three months before. He said he chose firearms for the attack because he believed it would mobilize the “left wing” in the United States to “abolish the second amendment, ” which would in turn upset the “right wing” and fracture the U. S. “along cultural and racial lines. ” He said that he originally didn’t plan to pick New Zealand. But he decided it was a “target rich of an environment. ” Tarrant later visited the mosques in Christchurch and Linwood and chose those. He said, “It is a terrorist attack” and admitted that “there was a racial component to the attack. ” On Whether He Likes Donald Trump & Candace Owens A picture on Brenton Tarrant’s now deleted Twitter page. He asked himself “were/are you a supporter of Donald Trump? ” The manifesto gives this answer: “As a symbol of renewed white identity and common purpose? Sure. As a policy maker and leader? Dear god no. ” He said he supported Brexit “though not for an official policy made. ” He researched and developed his beliefs through the Internet. Of Owens, he said, “Yes, the person that has influenced me above all was Candace Owens. Each time she spoke I was stunned by her insights and her own views helped push me further and further into the belief of violence over meekness. Though I will have to disavow some of her beliefs, the extreme actions she calls for are too much, even for my tastes. ” Owens responded: To be clear: We played the “Candace is Hitler” game. We played the “Candace is anti-rape victims” game. If the media attempts this “Candace inspired a mosque shooting in New Zealand” bit—they better all lawyer the f*ck up. I will go full Covington Catholic lawsuit. Try me. — Candace Owens (@RealCandaceO) March 15, 2019 She also wrote: “LOL! 😂 FACT: I’ve never created any content espousing my views on the 2nd Amendment or Islam. The Left pretending I inspired a mosque massacre in…New Zealand because I believe black America can do it without government hand outs is the reachiest reach of all reaches!! LOL! ” He said that “Spyro the dragon 3 taught me ethno-nationalism. Fortnite trained me to be a killer and to floss on the corpses of my enemies. ”.
The great replacement - brenton tarrant 2017. “You will not replace us, Jews will not replace us. ” This was the somewhat confusing chant from Charlottesville that echoed in news reports from the far-right march in August 2017. We have now seen its most recent manifestation in the Christchurch mosque massacre. The murderous potential of such “replacement” conspiracy theories is as clear as the only viable response: true internationalism. In 2012, before the so-called “alt right” had begun to draw together white nationalists across the world, Richard Spencer fashioned himself an academic. He had taken over the National Policy Institute and formed the Radix Journal, the first (and only) print issue of which he titled The Great Erasure. Download the new Independent Premium app Sharing the full story, not just the headlines A well-worn refrain, Spencer’s trope drew on ultranationalist themes of a “great replacement” that have inspired mass shootings in the years since, including the latest in New Zealand. This was the myth of how a once great people was vanished from the earth – first went honour, then their legitimacy, and finally their persons. Radix couched its hate in rhetoric plucked from Germany philosophy and critical theory, and gleaned from right-wing polemicist Renaud Camus’s assertion that immigration was diluting white populations, also known as the “great replacement. ” By branding his alleged manifesto with that phrase, the alleged Christchurch shooter lent his 79 pages a resonance for those seduced by that narrative. Brenton Tarrant’s screed reflects the way that white nationalists re-imagine themselves: the real holders of diversity, standing tall against a globalist force that wishes to wash away identity and distinction. left Created with Sketch. right Such delusions of grandeur conjured up by cowards who glorify the slaughter of women and children expose the self-evident emptiness of their claims. Their hatred of Muslims comes not from some ambiguous European culture (influenced as it has been by continuous contributions from the Muslim world) but from the need for a scapegoat that arises when lazy people seek to claim responsibility for hundreds of years of historical advances they had no hand in, simply by dint of their skin colour. The mosque and its worshippers, equal parts foreign peoples and foreign religion, are seen by Tarrant as invaders, washing away a country's identity rather than contributing to it. Following on from “lone-wolves” of the decades before him, the suspected shooter takes the deterioration of the public white nationalist movement as tantamount to the decline of Western civilisation and chooses to stand against time and take direct action. Such a horrifying outcome is, in many ways, the ultimate and absurd outcome of an ideology that draws on and creates hate and alienation. The source of this desperation comes from within – not just the white nationalist movement but white communities themselves. We believe that a form of cultural panic has set in among some white communities, preserved through white flight and gentrification and fear of an encroaching minority status. The most extreme version of this panic finds a voice in the “white genocide” myth – the idea that, starting in South Africa, whites are being forced out of existence, either through acts of violence or through demographic replacement. It is true that, in the US, census projections based on current trends have “whites” ceasing to be an absolute majority of the population by 2045. In Britain, Muhammed has become one of the most common baby names, comparable to staples like John or Oliver. But for Brenton Tarrant, the world isn’t just changing, his people are losing. Instead of opening up to the conditions and possibilities of the modern world, Tarrant and others who espouse his vicious and deadly ideology seek to retrench their own invented identity. And there is no paucity of people willing to espouse those views. For Donald Trump, the Alternative for Deutschland, the Austrian Freedom Party, or the Front National, immigrants are portrayed as an invading horde. By connecting latent racism and Islamophobia to resentment over austerity, the far right has parlayed the influx of refugees from the war in Syria and other Middle Eastern conflicts into huge gains. The white nationalist and nativist movements scorching the West right now have fostered a desperate situation in the minds of their followers who see violence as the only logical conclusion not just because they have lost the capacity to reason but because they loathe reason on principle. To oppose this movement of fear and shame, we must build an internationalist movement of liberation with equality at its heart. The only response to the hallucinatory realm of white rage is a return to reality. We must work hard to break through the isolation that leads people to believe that disharmony and ethnic violence will actually bring about a better world. Through the hard work of community organising in rural and remote areas, where opinions on world events are often shaped more by demagogic news spin than personal experience, we can locate real needs, improve on community connectivity, and promote freedom and equality against alienation and ignorance. Support free-thinking journalism and subscribe to Independent Minds This means meeting people where they are, while also facilitating community conversations about racism, sexism, and Islamophobia that expose and repudiate the distortions of the far right. At no time in recent history has it been clearer that the menace of fascism and its accompanying conspiracy theories must be opposed publically and in every forum. We can brook no compromise with the ideology of hard borders and accompanying myths of “white genocide” and “the great replacement. ” The attack at the Al Noor and Linwood mosques is terrifying not just because it is the high water mark of the shocking string of racist attacks that have become our new normal, but because it only represents the current limit. The climate of white anxiety has reached a fever pitch, and as this rhetoric escalates (and the organised white nationalist movement declines) we can expect to see more lone-wolves; more horror; more fear. It has never been more important that internationalism prevails, and whether it does or not is entirely up to us, how veracious we decide to be in confronting a white nationalist movement and whether or not we choose to be one community in defence of one another.
A censorious and censoring attitude has engulfed responses to the mental airings of the Christchurch shooter. Material in connection with Brenton Tarrant, the alleged gunman behind the killing of 50 individuals at two mosques in New Zealand, is drying up; his manifesto, for one, is being disaggregated and spread through multiple forms, removed from their various parts with blunt razors. Doing so does a disservice to any arguments that might be mounted against him, but having a debate is not what this is generally about. Arguments on banning the incendiary and dangerous are easily mounted against a range of publications. The smutty supposedly corrupt public morals; the revolutionary supposedly give citizens strange and cocksure ideas about overthrowing the order of things. Then there are just the downright bizarre and adventurous, incapable of classification, but deemed dangerous for not falling into any clear category. Certitude is fundamentally important for the rule-directed censor and paper shuffling bureaucrat. One example stands out, a testament to the failure of such efforts and the misunderstandings and distortions that follow. Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf, as a stellar case, was banned in Germany after the Second World War. In January 2016, it was republished on the expiry of copyright held by the Bavarian government. As Steven Luckert remarked in The Atlantic at the time, “the history of the book, and of Hitler’s words more generally, demonstrates that there’s no clear-cut relationship between banning speech and halting the spread of ideas. ” The Nazi party did not disappear in the aftermath of the ban; nor could it be said that his ideas had captivated whole states and their governments, despite being accessible. The book, deemed to be an insight into the darkened corridors of Hitler’s racial and biologically charged mind, was not initially seen as off limits in the war of ideas; even as the United States was doing battle against Nazi Germany, advocates for understanding the mental baggage of Hitler was sought rather than dismissed. Houghton Mifflin made it a patriotic duty for Americans to familiarise themselves with the tenets of the text. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was also keen that those battling Germany have a sense of what they were up against. As he noted in his history of the Second World War, “There was no book which deserved more careful study from the rulers, political and military, of the Allied Powers. ” All the elements were there, from “the programme of German insurrection” to establishing “the rightful position of Germany at the summit of the world. ” With Tarrant, the push to restrict discussion and siphon off any serious mention is well underway. The Great Replacement is become scarcer on the internet, having been removed from numerous sites and scoured off digital domains. White House counselor Kellyanne Conway insists that the document be studied and read “in its entirety. ” Her reasons, explained in a Monday morning interview with Fox & Friends, are valid enough; she wants to argue that Tarrant is not merely a white nationalist warrior, but as much a radical in other contexts. Yes, he mentions President Donald Trump “and there it is, one time. But he also said he aligns closely with the ideology of China. He said he’s not a conservative, he’s not a Nazi, I think her referred to himself as an eco-naturalist or an eco-fascist. ” Such are the muddying details of completeness. The suggestion prompted scorn and outrage from the media cognoscenti. Aaron Rupar called it “highly irresponsible. ” Joan Donovan of Harvard’s Technology and Social Change Research Project, demonstrating the enlightened disposition one has come to expect from boxed squirrel scholars, demanded a curb to its reach. “It is loaded with keywords that lead down far-right rabbit holes. Do not repost. ” Tech writer for The New York Times Kevin Roose was decidedly paternalistic, issuing a hazard warning to any would-be reader: “be careful with the NZ shooter’s apparent manifesto. It’s thick with irony and meta-text and very easy to misinterpret if you’re not steeped in this stuff all the time (and even if you are). ” Like the Catholic Church of old, it has been left to a priestly cast of read, steeped-in-the-stuff interpreters to give the highlights, carefully chosen, for public consumption. No rabbit holes, meta-text, or irony for the unfortunate plebeian readership. The mechanism by which this censorship is being engineered is questionable from ethical, evidentiary and epistemological contexts. The copy-cat syndrome has roared to the fore as real and influencing, and to that end, justifying. Be wary of social contagion in the aftermath of a mass killing, we are told. In 2015, a multi-authored study in PloS ONE claimed to find “significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. ” There was “significant evidence of contagion in school shootings. ” The authors suggested that an increased risk of mass killings and school shootings in a 13-day period following previous incidents. Such perspectives on contagion have been echoed in a range of publications, which insist on not publishing names or photographs of mass shooters. Adam Lankford and Sara Tomek revisited the theme in studying mass killings in the United States between 2006 and 2013 in the journal Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour. They noted the absence of relevant empirical studies on the subject, and previous contradictory findings. The authors suggested that contagion requires transmission. “The social contagion thesis requires that the imitative mass killer be at least indirectly exposed to the model killer’s behaviour. ” On examining their gathered data, Lankford and Tomek confidently asserted that their study raised “significant questions about previous findings implying a short-term social contagion effect from mass killings. ” No “statistically significant evidence of contagion” was detectable within the 14-day time period. Ever careful to cover their tracks with heavy padding, they also issue a cautionary note; “that longer term contagion or copycat effects may pose a significant threat to society. ” The banning complex is hard to resist. After catastrophe, material can find itself onto forbidden lists. Authorities, fearing mayhem, are the first to identify such dangers in slipshod fashion. Uncertain and unverifiable contagion measures are considered. But keeping such material off the radar will not advance the discussion of nationalism of a certain pedigree and the source of its inspiration. If white nationalism be the problem, then call it out. Examine it. Consider remedies. Tarrant’s The Great Replacement, like Hitler’s Mein Kampf before it, should be studied for its implications and understandings rather than avoided as a viral inducement for further violence. The censor, in attitude, practice and assumption, remains as great a danger to society as any dangerous text ever could be. Binoy Kampmark was a Commonwealth Scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge. He lectures at RMIT University, Melbourne. Email:.
This article is about the French far-right theory. For the article about the broader concept, see White genocide conspiracy theory. The Great Replacement ( French: grand remplacement), also known as the replacement theory,  is a white nationalist far-right conspiracy theory    which states that, with the complicity or cooperation of "replacist" elites, [a]   the white French population —as well as white European population at large—is being progressively replaced with non-European peoples—specifically Arab, Berber and sub-Saharan Muslim populations from Africa and the Middle East —through mass migration, demographic growth and a European drop in the birth rate.   Scholars have generally dismissed the claims of a "great replacement" as being rooted in a misreading of immigration statistics and unscientific, racially prejudiced views.   While similar themes have characterized various far-right theories, the term "Great Replacement" was popularized by the French author Renaud Camus 's 2011 book Le Grand Remplacement (English: The Great Replacement). It specifically associated the presence of Muslims in France with potential danger and destruction of French culture and civilization. Camus and other conspiracy theorists attribute this process to intentional policies advanced by global and liberal elites (i. e., the "replacists") from within the Government of France and the European Union, and describe it as a "genocide by substitution".  The "Great Replacement" is included in a larger white genocide conspiracy theory that has spread in Western far-right movements since the late 20th century.  Despite their common reference to a "genocide" of indigenous white peoples and a global plan led by a conspiring power, Camus's theory does not include an antisemitic Jewish plot. His removal of antisemitism from the original neo-Nazi conspiracy theory, along with his use of simple catch-all slogans, have been cited as reasons for its broader appeal.    Description [ edit] The "Great Replacement” theory was developed by French author Renaud Camus, initially in a 2010 book titled L'Abécédaire de l'in-nocence ("Abecedarium of no-harm"),  and the following year in an eponymous book, Le Grand Remplacement (introduction au remplacisme global). [b] According to him, the "Great Replacement" has been nourished by " industrialisation ", " despiritualisation " and "deculturation"; [c]   the materialistic society and globalism having created a "replaceable human, without any national, ethnic or cultural specificity",  what he labels "global replacism".  Camus claims that "the great replacement does not need a definition, " as the term is not, in his views, a "concept" but rather a "phenomenon":   Renaud Camus, progenitor of the Great Replacement theory. March 2019 A people was here, stable, had been occupying the same territory for fifteen or twenty centuries. And suddenly, very quickly, in one or two generations, one or several other peoples substitute themselves for him. He is replaced, it is not him anymore. In Camus's theory, the indigenous French people ("Français de souche") is described as being demographically replaced by non-European peoples—mainly coming from Africa or the Middle East —in a process of "peopling immigration" encouraged by a "replacist power". [a]   According to French philosopher Pierre-André Taguieff, the validity for using the term "conspiracy theory" to define Camus's concept indeed lies in the second part of the proposition: To [the theory of a replacement through mass immigration], that claims itself to be an observation or a description, is added in the "anti-replacist" vision a conspiracy theory which attributes to the "replacist" elites the desire to achieve the "Great Replacement". From the ideas of "peopling colonisation" and "mass immigration", "anti-replacists" went to that of a genocide by ethnic, racial and cultural substitution, involving the completion of a programme or an action plan. Camus frequently uses terms and concepts related to the period of Nazi-occupied France (1940–1945). He for instance labels "colonizers" or "Occupiers" [d] people of non-European descent who reside in Europe,   and dismisses what he calls the "replacist elites" as "collaborationist".  Camus founded in 2017 an organization named the National Council of European Resistance, in a self-evident reference to the WWII National Council of the Resistance (1943–1945).  This analogy to the French resistance against Nazism has been described as an implicit call to hatred, direct action or even violence against what Camus labels the "Occupiers; i. e. the immigrants":  The Occupation provoked among the French, and especially among the resisters, a very intense feeling of hatred [... ] Moreover this occupation was made of persons in uniforms [... ] How could you not provoke, with such an analogy, a hatred that some will judge salutary towards any immigrant they will meet [... ]? It appears to me contradictory on your side to say that you condemn hatred, while at the same time drawing inspiration from that incendiary analogy to describe our times. Origins [ edit] Context [ edit] Renaud Camus developed his conspiracy theory in two books published in 2010 and 2011, in the context of an increase in anti-immigrant rhetoric in public discourse during the previous decade.  Europe also experienced an escalation in Islamic terrorist attacks during the 2000s–2010s  and a migrant crisis that began in 2015,  which participated in exacerbating tensions and preparing the public opinion for the reception of Camus's conspiracy theory.   As the latter depicts a population replacement said to occur in a short time lapse of one or two generations, the migrant crisis was particularly conducive to the spread of Camus's ideas—even though France was not the main European country concerned with the migration flows—while the terrorist attacks accelerated the construction of immigrants as an existential threat among those who shared such a worldview.  Camus's theme of a future demise of European culture and civilization also parallels a " cultural pessimistic " and anti-Islam trend among European intellectuals of the period, illustrated in several best-selling and straightforwardly titled books released during the 2010s: Thilo Sarrazin 's Germany Abolishes Itself (2010), Éric Zemmour 's The French Suicide (2014) or Michel Houellebecq 's Submission (2015).  Claimed influences [ edit] The French cover of the 2012 edition of Renaud Camus's book The Great Replacement. Renaud Camus cites two influential figures in the epilogue of his 2011 book The Great Replacement: British politician Enoch Powell 's apocalyptic vision of future race relations—expressed in his 1968 "Rivers of Blood" speech —and French author Jean Raspail 's depiction of the collapse of the West from an overwhelming "tidal wave" of Third World immigration, featured in his 1973 novel Le Camp des Saints.   Camus also declared to British magazine The Spectator in 2016 that a key to understanding the "Great Replacement" can be found in his 2002 book Du Sens.  In the latter he wrote that the words "France" and "French" equal a natural and physical reality rather than a legal one, in a cratylism similar to Charles Maurras 's distinction between the "legal" and the "real country". [e]  During the same interview, Camus mentioned that he began to imagine his conspiracy theory back in 1996, during the redaction of a guidebook on the department of Hérault, in the South of France: "I suddenly realized that in very old villages [... ] the population had totally changed too [... ] this is when I began to write like that. "  Similar themes [ edit] Despite its own singularities and concepts, the "Great Replacement" is encompassed in a larger and older "white genocide" conspiracy theory,  popularized in the US by neo-Nazi David Lane in his 1995 White Genocide Manifesto, where he asserted that governments in Western countries were intending to turn white people into "extinct species".   The idea of a "replacement" of indigenous white people under the guidance of a hostile elite can be further traced back to pre-WWII antisemitic conspiracy theories which posited the existence of a Jewish plot to destroy Europe through miscegenation, especially in Édouard Drumont 's antisemitic bestseller La France juive (1886).  Commenting on this resemblance, historian Nicolas Lebourg and political scientist Jean-Yves Camus suggest that Camus's contribution was to replace the antisemitic elements with a clash of civilizations between Muslims and Europeans.  To succeed in their attack on Christian civilization, Jews in France had to deceive, lie, and take the disguises of free thinkers. If they had said frankly: "We want to destroy this ancient France, which was so glorious and beautiful, to replace it with the domination of a handful of Hebrews from all countries", our fathers, who were less softened than us, would not have let themselves be taken in. Maurice Barrès 's nationalist writings of that period have also been noted in the ideological genealogy of the "Great Replacement", Barrès contending both in 1889 and in 1900 that a replacement of the native population under the combined effect of immigration and a decline in the birth rate was happening in France.   Scholars also highlight a modern similarity to European neo-fascist and neo-Nazi thinkers from the immediate post-war, especially Maurice Bardèche, René Binet and Gaston-Armand Amaudruz.   Influenced by Binet's 1950 Théorie du Racisme  —with its idea of an "interbreeding capitalism" aiming at creating a "uniform inhumanity"  —French 1960s far-right movements such as Europe-Action used terms that echo Camus's concepts, labeling the Algerian immigration an "invasion", arguing that "systematic race mixing is nothing more than a slow genocide",  and fearing a future France "occupied by twenty million Maghrebi Arabs and twenty million Negro-Africans":   In France, the significant immigration of colored elements is a grave issue […]. We also know the size of the North African population [... ]. What is serious for the future: we know that the basis of European settlement, which allowed for civilizing expansion, was that of a white ethnic group. The destruction of this balance, which can be quick, will lead to our disappearance and that of our civilization. — Dominique Venner, Europe-Action, nº 38, February 1966, p. 8. The associated and more recent conspiracy theory of " Eurabia ", published by British author Bat Ye'or in her 2005 eponymous book, is often cited as a probable inspiration for Camus's "Great Replacement".    Eurabia theory likewise involves globalist entities, that time led by both French and Arab powers, conspiring to Islamize Europe, with Muslims submerging the continent through immigration and higher birth rates.  The conspiracy theory also depicts immigrants as invaders or as a fifth column, invited to the continent by a corrupt political elite.   Scholars generally agree that, although he did not father the theme, Camus indeed coined the term "Great Replacement" as a slogan and concept, and eventually led it to its fame in the 2010s.   Analysis [ edit] Demographic statistics [ edit] Scholars have generally dismissed the claims of a "great replacement" as being rooted in a misreading of immigration statistics and unscientific, racially prejudiced views.  Demographer Landis MacKellar has said that around 5–10% of French residents were Muslims as of 2016, making a "replacement" unlikely, and criticized Camus's thesis for assuming "that third- and fourth- generation 'immigrants' are somehow not French. "  Racial connotations [ edit] In German discourse, Austrian political scientist Rainer Bauböck questioned the conspiracy theorists' use of the terms "population replacement" or "exchange" (" Bevölkerungsaustausch "). Using Ruth Wodak 's analysis that the slogan needs to be viewed in its historical context, Bauböck has concluded that the conspiracy theory is a reemergence of the Nazi ideology of Umvolkung ("ethnicity inversion").  In May 2019, political journalist Nick Cohen described the Great Replacement as a form of racism and propaganda, alongside a fear European men are not virile enough.  The same month, historian Anne Applebaum wrote that the conspiracy theory was used as a gateway from discussing the effects of immigration and Islam's compatibility with the Western world to forms of extremism, such as advocating for the " remigration " or the murder of migrants.  Popularity [ edit] Camus's tract for his 2014 "day of anger" manifestation against the "great replacement": "No to the change of people and of civilization, no to antisemitism" The simplicity and use of catch-all slogans in Camus's formulations—"you have one people, and in the space of a generation you have a different people"  — as well as his removal of antisemitism from the original neo-Nazi " white genocide " conspiracy theory, have been cited as conducive to the popularity of the "Great Replacement".   In a survey led by Ifop in December 2018, 25% of the French subscribed to the conspiracy theory; as well as 46% of the responders who defined themselves as " Gilets Jaunes " (Yellow Vest protesters).  The theory has also become influential in far-right and white nationalist circles outside of France.  The conspiracy theory has been cited by Canadian far-right political activist Lauren Southern in a YouTube video of the same name released in July 2017.  Southern's video had attracted in 2019 more than 670, 000 viewers  and is credited with helping to popularize the conspiracy theory.  Counter-jihad Norwegian blogger Fjordman has also participated in spreading the theory.  Prominent right-wing extremist websites such as Gates of Vienna, Politically Incorrect, and Fdesouche have provided a platform for bloggers to diffuse and popularize the theory of the "Great Replacement".  Among its main promoters are also a wide-ranging network of loosely connected white nationalist movements, especially the Identitarian movement in Europe,  and other groups like PEGIDA in Germany.  Political influence [ edit] Europe [ edit] Austria [ edit] Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ), the Austrian branch of the Identitarian movement, promotes this theory, citing a "great exchange" [f] or replacement of the population that supposedly needs to be reversed.  In April 2019, Heinz-Christian Strache campaigning for his FPÖ party ahead of the 2019 European Parliament election endorsed the conspiracy theory.  Claiming that "population replacement" in Austria was a real threat, he stated that "We don’t want to become a minority in our own country".  Compatriot Martin Sellner, who also supports the theory, celebrated Strache's political use of the Great Replacement.   Belgium [ edit] In September 2018, Schild & Vrienden, an extremist Flemish youth organization, were reported to be endorsing the conspiracy theory. The group, claiming that "native" populations of North America and Europe (meaning white people) were being displaced by migrants; they proposed an end to all immigration, " remigration ", or forced deportation of non-whites, and the founding of ethnostates.  The following month, VRT detailed how the organization was discussing the Great Replacement on secretive chat channels, and using the conspiracy theory to promote Flemish ethnic identity.  In March 2019, Flemish nationalist Dries Van Langenhove of the Vlaams Belang party, repeatedly stated that the Flemish people were "being replaced" in Belgium, posting claims on social media which endorsed the Great Replacement theory.   Denmark [ edit] Use of the Great Replacement ( Danish: Store Udskiftning) conspiracy theory has become common in right-wing Danish political rhetoric. In April 2019, Rasmus Paludan, leader of the Hard Line party, which is widely associated with the Great Replacement,  claimed that by the year 2040 ethnic Danish people would be a minority in Denmark, having been outnumbered by Muslims and their descendants.  During a debate for the 2019 European Parliament elections, Rasmus used the concept to justify a proposal to ban Muslim immigration and deport all Islamic residents from the country, in what Le Monde described as Rasmus "preaching the 'great replacement theory'".  In June 2019, Pia Kjærsgaard invoked the conspiracy theory while serving as Speaker of the Danish Parliament. After the alleged encouragement of Muslim communities to "vote red", for the Social Democrats; Kjærsgaard asked "What will happen? A replacement of the Danish people? ".  France [ edit] Much of the European spread of the Great Replacement ( French: Grand Remplacement) conspiracy theory rhetoric is due to its prevalence in French national discourse and media. Nationalist right-wing groups in France have asserted that there is an ongoing "Islamo-substitution" of the indigenous French population, associating the presence of Muslims in France with potential danger and destruction of French culture and civilization.    In 2011, Marine Le Pen evoked the theory, claiming that France's "adversaries" were waging a moral and economic war on the country, apparently "to deliver it to submersion by an organized replacement of our population".  In 2013, historian Dominique Venner 's suicide in Notre-Dame de Paris, in which he left a note outlining the "crime of the replacement of our people" is reported to have inspired the far-right Iliade Institute' s main ideological tenet of the Great Replacement.  Referring to the conspiracy theory, Marine Le Pen publicly praised Venner, claiming that his "last gesture, eminently political, was to try to awaken the French people ".  In 2015, Guillaume Faye gave a speech at the Swedish Army Museum in Stockholm, in which he claimed there were three societal things being used against Europeans to carry out a supposed Great Replacement: abortion, homosexuality and immigration. He asserted that Muslims were replacing white people by using birthrates as a demographic weapon.  In June 2017, a BuzzFeed investigation revealed three National Front candidates subscribing to the conspiracy theory ahead of the legislative elections.  These included Senator Stéphane Ravier 's personal assistant, who claimed the Great Replacement had already started in France.  Publishing an image of blonde girl next to the caption "Say no to white genocide ", Ravier's aide politically charged the concept further, writing "the National Front or the invasion".  By September 2018, in a meeting at Fréjus, Marine Le Pen closely echoed Great Replacement rhetoric. Speaking of France, she declared that "never in the history of mankind, have we seen a society that organizes an irreversible submersion" that would eventually cause French society to "disappear by dilution or substitution, its culture and way of life".  Former National Assembly delegate Marion Maréchal, who is a junior member of the political Le Pen family, is also a proponent of the theory.  In March 2019, in a trip to the U. S., Maréchal evoked the theory, stating "I don’t want France to become a land of Islam".  Insisting that the Great Replacement was "not absurd", she declared the "indigenous French" people, apparently in danger of being a minority by 2040, now wanted their "country back".  National Rally 's serving president Marine Le Pen, who is the aunt of Maréchal, has been heavily influenced by the Great Replacement. FAZ newspaper has described the conspiracy theory creator Renaud Camus as Le Pen's "whisperer".  In May 2019, National Rally spokesman Jordan Bardella was reported to use the conspiracy theory during a televised debate with Nathalie Loiseau, after he argued that France must "turn off the tap" from the demographic bomb of African immigration into the country.  In June 2019, Éric Zemmour pushed the concept in comparison to the Kosovo War, claiming "In 1900, there were 90% Serbs and 10% Muslims in Kosovo, in 1990 there were 90% Muslims and 10% Serbs, then there was war and the independence of Kosovo".  Zemmour, author of The French Suicide, has repeatedly described "the progressive replacement, over a few decades, of the historic population of our country by immigrants, the vast majority of them non-European".  Later that month, Marion Maréchal joined Zemmour in invoking the Great Replacement in relation to the Balkan region, stating "I do not want my France to become Kosovo " and declared that the changing demographics of France "threatens us" ("nous menace") and that this threat was becoming increasingly clear.  Germany [ edit] SPD politician Thilo Sarrazin is reported to be one of the most influential promoters of the Great Replacement, having published several books on the subject, some of which, such as Germany Abolishes Itself, are in high circulation.  Sarrazin has proposed that there are too many immigrants in Germany, and that they supposedly have lower IQs than Germans. Regarding the demographics of Germany, he has claimed that in a century ethnic Germans will drop in number to 25 million, in 200 years to eight million and in 300 years: three million.  In May 2016, Alternative for Germany (German: Alternative für Deutschland, AfD) deputy leader Beatrix von Storch co-opted and distorted the meaning of a 2001 United Nations report titled " Replacement migration ", which focused on how to manage the replenishment of the population of eight low-fertility countries (France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Russia, U. K. and U. S. ), in order to push the theory.  Storch claimed that a mass population exchange ("Massenaustausch der Bevölkerung") had been planned by the UN since the publication of the report.  In April 2017, a few months before he assumed the leadership of the AfD, Alexander Gauland released a press statement regarding the issue of family reunification for refugees, in which he claimed that "Population exchange in Germany is running at full speed".   In October 2018, following Beatrix von Storch's lead, Bundestag member Petr Bystron said the Global Compact for Migration was part of the conspiracy to bring about systemic population change in Germany.  In March 2019, Vice Germany reported how AfD MP Harald Laatsch attempted to justify and assign blame for the Christchurch mosque shootings, in relation to his "The Great Exchange" [f] theory, by asserting that the shooter's actions were driven by "overpopulation" from immigrants and "climate protection" against them. Laatsch also claimed that the climate movement, who he labelled "climate panic propagators", had a "shared responsibility" for the massacre, and singled out child activist Greta Thunberg.  Similarly, right-wing publicist Martin Lichtmesz denied that either Anders Breivik 's 2011 manifesto, which referred to the Eurabia variant of the "white genocide" narrative, or Brenton Tarrant 's 2019 The Great Replacement manifesto, had any connection to the theory. Claiming that it was, in fact, not a conspiracy theory at all, Lichtmesz said both Breivik and Tarrant were reacting to a real phenomenon; a "historically unique experiment" of a "Great Exchange" [f] of people.  Hungary [ edit] Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and his political party Fidesz in Hungary have been associated with the conspiracy theory over the course of several years.   The Sydney Morning Herald detailed Orbán's belief in and promotion of the Great Replacement as being central to the modern right-wing politics of Europe. In December 2018, he claimed the "Christian identity of Europe" needed saving, and labelled refugees traveling to Europe as "Muslim invaders".  He has stated: "In all of Europe there are fewer and fewer children, and the answer of the West is migration, " concluding that "We Hungarians have a different way of thinking. Instead of just numbers, we want Hungarian children. " ThinkProgress described the comments as pushing a version of the theory.  In April 2019, Radio New Zealand published insight that Orban's plans to cut taxes for large Hungarian families could be linked with fears of the Great Replacement.  Italy [ edit] Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini of Italy has repeatedly adopted the theme of the Great Replacement.  In May 2016, two years before his election to office, he claimed "ethnic replacement is underway" in Italy in an interview with Sky TG24. Accusing nameless, well-funded organizations for importing workers that he named "farm slaves", he stated that there was a "lucrative attempt at genocide" of Italians.   The Netherlands [ edit] In April 2015, writing on the publishing website GeenStijl, scholar of Islam Hans Jansen used Great Replacement rhetoric, suggesting that it was an "undisputed" fact that among the European Union 's governing elite there was a common consensus that Europeans were "no good and can be better replaced".  In May 2015, Martin Bosma a Dutch parliament Representative for the Party for Freedom (PVV), released his book Minority in their own land. Invoking the conspiracy theory, Bosma wrote about a growing 'a new population' of immigrants which lent itself to an apparently 'post-racial Multicultural State of Salvation'.  By September 2015, it was reported that the two right-wing political parties Christian Democratic Appeal and the Reformed Political Party had distanced themselves from the ideology of the Great Replacement.  In March 2017, Thierry Baudet, founder and leader of the right wing Forum for Democracy (FvD) party, was said to promote the theory after he claimed that the country's so-called elite were deliberately " homeopathically diluting" the Dutch population, in a speech about "national self-hatred". He said there was a plot to racially mix the ethnic Dutch with "all the people of the world", so that there would "never be a Dutchman again".  In January 2018, PVV Representative Martin Bosma endorsed the Great Replacement theory, and one of its key propagators, after meeting with Renaud Camus at a PVV demonstration in Rotterdam and tweeting his support. Filip Dewinter, a leading member of the Flemish secessionist Vlaams Belang party, who had traveled to the Netherlands on the day of the protest to meet with Camus, named him as a "visionary man" to the media.  Party for Freedom politician Geert Wilders of the Netherlands strongly supports the notion of a Great Replacement occurring in Europe.   In October 2018, Wilders invoked the conspiracy theory, claiming the Netherlands was "being replaced with mass immigration from non-western Islamic countries " and Rotterdam being "the port of Eurabia ". He claimed 77 million, mainly Islamic immigrants would attempt to enter Europe over the course of half a century, and that white Europeans would cease to exist unless they were stopped.  In 2019, The New York Times reported how Camus's demographic-based alarmist theories help fuel Wilders and his Party for Freedom 's nativist campaigning.  In September 2018, Dutch author Paul Scheffer analyzed the Great Replacement and its political developments, suggesting that Forum for Democracy and Party for Freedom were forming policy regarding the demography of the Netherlands through the lens of the conspiracy theory.  United Kingdom [ edit] In July 2019, English musician Billy Bragg criticized the Great Replacement, calling it a "racist creed" that was "being promoted so effectively by the far right that it is entering mainstream political discourse".  Releasing a public statement which accused fellow singer-songwriter Morrissey of endorsing the theory, he drew attention to an Institute for Strategic Dialogue report on far-right extremism. Bragg suggested "that Morrissey is helping to spread this idea—which inspired the Christchurch mosque murderer —is beyond doubt". He proposed that fans of Morrissey, attempting to separate his music from his political views, were potentially "helping propagate" the conspiracy theory further. Bragg included American musician Brandon Flowers in his assertions, who had days before said Morrissey was "still a king" in spite of his public support for the far right For Britain Movement.  North America [ edit] Canada [ edit] YouTuber Lauren Southern of Canada is an advocate of the conspiracy theory.   In 2017, Southern dedicated a video to the Great Replacement, gaining over half a million views on her channel.    2018 mayoral candidate for Toronto Faith Goldy has publicly embraced the replacement theory.   In 2019, in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, Vice accused Goldy of routinely pushing the same ideas of birthrate declines and the population replacement of whites, found in the gunman's The Great Replacement manifesto.  Long-time white nationalist Paul Fromm when he co-opted the pre-1967 Red Ensign flag of Canada referred to it as "the flag of the true Canada, the European Canada before the treasonous European replacement schemes brought in by the 1965 immigration policies".  In June 2019, columnist Lindsay Shepherd claimed that "whites are becoming a minority" in the West, describing her assertion as "population replacement".  She was criticized by Canadian MP Colin Fraser at a House of Commons justice committee for not denouncing the concept,  while Nathaniel Erskine-Smith accused Shepherd of openly embracing the conspiracy theory.  United States [ edit] In 2017, white supremacist protesters at the Unite The Right Rally in Charlottesville, Virginia used slogans that alluded to similar ideas of ethnic replacement,  such as "You will not replace us" and "Jews will not replace us".   After that event, Camus told Vox that he did not support violence, and disputed any association between his ideas and neo-Nazis; however, he said he approved of the feeling behind the chant.  In October 2018, Republican congressman Steve King endorsed the conspiracy theory,   stating: "Great replacement, yes, " referring to the European migrant crisis that "these people walking into Europe by ethnic migration, 80 percent are young men. "  King presents the Great Replacement as a shared concern of Europe and the United States, claiming that "if we continue to abort our babies and import a replacement for them in the form of young violent men, we are supplanting our culture, our civilization. "  He has blamed George Soros as an alleged perpetrator behind the conspiracy.  In May 2019, Florida State Senator Dennis Baxley was reported to use the replacement theory in relation to the abortion debate in the United States.   Speaking of Western European birthrates as a warning to Americans, he said: "When you get a birth rate less than 2 percent, that society is disappearing, and it’s being replaced by folks that come behind them and immigrate, don’t wish to assimilate into that society and they do believe in having children. "  The following month, Nick Isgro, deputy leader of the Maine Republican Party endorsed the conspiracy theory after claiming financial subsidies were promoted for abortions in the U. to "kill our own people", and that asylum seekers were "human pawns who are being played in a game by global elites and their partners here in Augusta. " Greg Kesich, a writer for the Portland Press Herald, reported that the current Mayor of Waterville 's speech displayed the sentiment of the Great Replacement.  In July 2019, Keith Ellison, the Attorney General of Minnesota, stated how increasing and varied hate crime, exacerbated by the 2016 Brexit vote and election of Donald Trump, was "united by so-called "replacement" theory", and that communities needed to "vigilantly and consistently counter each of these acts of violence and expressions of hate".  At the same time, Mick Davis, the Chief Executive and Treasurer of the Conservative Party, published his outrage of the concept. Writing in The Jewish Chronicle, Davis named the Great Replacement, "a driving force behind far right terror", as worse than merely a conspiracy theory, in that it was "profoundly antisemitic".  According to the Institute for Strategic Dialogue 's, US president Donald Trump has referenced the Great Replacement and a 2019 tweet in favour of his proposed Border Wall was interpreted by many as endorsing the theory. They also stated that Trump's Twitter account was one of the most influential accounts promoting the theory.  His history of describing Muslims and migrants as "invaders", according to SBS News, closely mirrors the language of explicit supporters of the theory.  Oceania [ edit] Australia [ edit] The media in Australia have covered Senator Fraser Anning of Queensland and his endorsement of the Great Replacement conspiracy theory.  In April 2019, Reuters reported how Anning was amplifying replacement theory by suggesting that Muslims would "out-breed us very quickly".  In May 2019, Anning alleged that White Australians would "fast become a minority" if they did not defend their "ethno-cultural identity".  Influence on white nationalist terrorism [ edit] Implicit call to violence [ edit] Camus's use of strong terms like "colonization" and "Occupiers" [d] to label non-European immigrants and their children   have been described as implicit calls to violence.  Scholars state that the "Great Replacement" conspiracy theory closely parallels the concept of " remigration ", or forced deportation of non-white migrants.   "We shall not leave Europe, we shall make Africa leave Europe, " Camus wrote in 2019 to define his political agenda for the European parliament elections.  He has also used the equivalent term of "Great Repatriation" to refer to remigration. [g]  According to historians Nicolas Bancel and Pascal Blanchard, along with sociologist Ahmed Boubeker, "the announcement of a civil war is implicit in the theory of the 'great replacement' [... ] This thesis is extreme—and so simplistic that it can be understood by anyone—because it validates a racial definition of the nation. "  Sceptical of Camus's description of second or third generation immigrants as being itself a contradiction in terms—"they do not migrate anymore, they are French"—demographer Hervé Le Bras is also critical of their designation as a fifth column in France or an "internal enemy".  Inspired attacks [ edit] Fears of the white race's extinction, and replacement theory in particular, have been cited by several accused perpetrators of mass shootings between 2018 and 2019. While Camus has stated his own philosophy is a nonviolent one, analysts including Heidi Beirich of the Southern Poverty Law Center say the idea of white genocide has "undoubtedly influenced" American white supremacists, potentially leading to violence.  Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the Australia-born terrorist responsible for the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand on 15 March 2019, that killed 51 people and injured 49, named his manifesto The Great Replacement, a reference to Camus's book.   In response, Camus condemned violence while reaffirming his desire for a "counter-revolt" against an increase in nonwhite populations.  In 2019, research by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue showed over 24, 000 social media mentions of the Great Replacement in the month before the Christchurch shootings, in comparison to just 3, 431 mentions in April 2012. The use of the term spiked in April 2019 after the Christchurch mosque shootings.  Patrick Crusius, the suspect in the 2019 El Paso shooting, posted an online manifesto titled The Inconvenient Truth alluding to the "great replacement"  and expressing support for "the Christchurch shooter" minutes before the attack;  it alluded to a "Hispanic invasion of Texas" and "simply trying to defend my country from cultural and ethnic replacement brought on by an invasion" as justifications for the shooting.    See also [ edit] White genocide conspiracy theory Counter-jihad Race suicide theory of early 20th century eugenicists The Kalergi Plan conspiracy theory, another variant of the white genocide conspiracy theory that heavily revolves around a supposed plan to replace and racially mix white Europeans with non-whites through immigration by Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi an Austrian-Japanese politician and founder of the Paneuropean Union. Notes [ edit] ^ a b French: pouvoir/élite remplaciste ^ English: The Great Replacement (introduction to global replacism) ^ Déculturation can be translated as 'loss', 'disappearance' or 'erasure' of one's culture or national feeling ^ a b French: colonisateurs/colonisation and Occupants ^ French: pays légal and pays réel ^ a b c German: (Der) Große Austausch ^ French: Grand Rapatriement References [ edit] ^ a b Bowles, Nellie (18 March 2019). " ' Replacement Theory, ' a Racist, Sexist Doctrine, Spreads in Far-Right Circles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019. Behind the idea is a racist conspiracy theory known as 'the replacement theory, ' which was popularized by a right-wing French philosopher. ^ a b c d e f Taguieff, Pierre-André (18 March 2015). La revanche du nationalisme: Néopopulistes et xénophobes à l'assaut de l'Europe (in French). Presses Universitaires de France. p. 71. ISBN 9782130729501. ^ Baldauf, Johannes (2017). Toxische Narrative: Monitoring rechts-alternativer Akteure (PDF) (in Dutch). Berlin: Amadeu Antonio Stiftung. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-940878-29-8. OCLC 1042949000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018... narrative is highly compatible with concrete conspiracy narratives about how this replacement is desired and planned, either by 'the politicians' or 'the elite, ' which-ever connotes Jewishness more effectively. ^ Korte, Barbara; Wendt, Simon; Falkenhayner, Nicole (27 March 2019). Heroism as a Global Phenomenon in Contemporary Culture. Routledge. ISBN 9780429557842. This conspiracy theory, which was first articulated by the French philosopher Renaud Camus, has gained a lot of traction in Europe since 2015. ^ a b c d Fourquet, Jérôme (6 October 2016). Accueil ou submersion? : Regards européens sur la crise des migrants (in French). L'Aube. pp. PT29 (GBooks). ISBN 978-2-8159-2026-1. ^ Verstraet, Antoine (2017). "C'est ça que tu veux?! ". Savoirs et Clinique (in French). 23 (2): 55. doi: 10. 3917/sc. 023. 0055. ISSN 1634-3298. [transl. from French] This theory states that the indigenous French ("Français de souche") could soon be demographically replaced by non-European peoples, especially from the Maghreb and sub-Saharan Africa. ^ a b Cecil Jenkins (13 July 2017). A Brief History of France. Little, Brown Book Group. p. 342. ISBN 978-1-4721-4027-2. As for the grand replacement, this has been widely seen as a paranoid fantasy, which plays fast and loose with the statistics, is racist in that it classes as immigrants people actually born in France, glosses over the fact that around half of immigrants are from other European countries, and suggests that declining indigenous France will be outbred by Muslim newcomers when in fact it has the highest fertility rate in Western Europe, and not because of immigration. ^ a b MacKellar, Landis (June 2016). "Review: La République islamique de France? A Review Essay". Population and Development Review. 42 (2): 368–375. 1111/j. 1728-4457. 2016. 00130. x. JSTOR 44015644. ^ a b c Bergmann, Eirikur (2018). "The Eurabia Doctrine". Conspiracy & Populism: The Politics of Misinformation. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. 1007/978-3-319-90359-0_6. ISBN 978-3-319-90358-3. LCCN 2018939717 – via Google Books. This notion of replacement, or of white genocide, has echoed throughout the rhetoric of many anti-migrant far-right movements in the West— such as by neo-racist protestors in Charlottesville in the USA in 2017 ^ a b c d Camus, Jean-Yves; Lebourg, Nicolas (20 March 2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-0-674-97153-0. Archived from the original on 13 August 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019. The success of that umpteenth incarnation of a theme launched immediately after World War II (Camus has personally declared his indebtedness to Enoch Powell) can be explained by the fact that he subtracted anti-Semitism from the argument ^ Williams, Thomas Chatterton (27 November 2017). "The French Origins of "You Will Not Replace Us " ". ISSN 0028-792X. Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2019. ^ a b c d Boubeker, Ahmed; Bancel, Nicolas; Blanchard, Pascal (24 September 2015). Le grand repli (in French). La Découverte. pp. 141–52. ISBN 9782707188229. ^ a b Camus, Jean-Yves; Mathieu, Annie (19 August 2017). "D'où vient l'expression 'remigration'? ". Le Soleil. Archived from the original on 24 May 2019. Retrieved 5 August 2019. Ceci étant, le mot ne peut être compris sans référence à la théorie du «grand remplacement», élaborée par l'écrivain Renaud Camus en 2010 dans son Abécédaire de l'In-nocence ^ Camus, Renaud (24 April 2013). Vue d'oeil: Journal 2012 (in French). Fayard. ISBN 9782213672892. ^ Traverso, Enzo (29 January 2019). The New Faces of Fascism: Populism and the Far Right. Verso Books. ISBN 9781788730495. ^ Joignot, Frédéric (23 January 2014). "Le fantasme du "grand remplacement" démographique". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 21 May 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019. ^ Bromley, Roger (2018). "The politics of displacement: the Far Right narrative of Europe and its 'others ' ". From the European South. University of Nottingham. 3: 15. ^ Albertini, Dominique (13 October 2015). "Le "grand remplacement", totem extrême". Libération (in French). Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2019. ^ Williams, Thomas Chatterton (4 December 2017). "The French Origins of 'You Will Not Replace Us ' ". The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 September 2018. ^ Wilson, Andrew (27 March 2019). "Fear-Filled Apocalypses: The Far-Right's Use of Conspiracy Theories". Oxford Research Group. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2019. ^ a b c d Heim, Joe; McAuley, James (15 March 2019). "New Zealand attacks offer the latest evidence of a web of supremacist extremism". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 18 March 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019. Camus, now 72, told The Washington Post that he condemns the Christchurch attacks and has always condemned similar violence. [... ] Camus added that he still hopes that the desire for a 'counterrevolt' against 'colonization in Europe today' will grow, a reference to increases in nonwhite populations. ^ AFP (4 April 2019). "Européennes: l'écrivain Renaud Camus en tête de liste". Le Figaro. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 4 August 2019. 'L'Europe, il ne faut pas en sortir, il faut en sortir l'Afrique' [... ] 'Jamais une occupation n'a pris fin sans le départ de l'occupant. Jamais une colonisation ne s'est achevée sans le retrait des colonisateurs et des colons. 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Retrieved 17 May 2019. ^ "Steve King Was Saying Insanely Racist Things Long Before Republicans Decided Enough Was Enough". Mother Jones. 15 January 2019. Retrieved 17 May 2019. ^ "Florida Senator's 'Racist' Replacement Theory Stance Against Abortion Slammed by Reproductive Rights Supporters". 30 May 2019. Retrieved 5 June 2019. ^ "Confederate-Loving Florida Lawmaker Uses White-Supremacist Talking Point to Justify Abortion Ban". Miami New Times. 21 May 2019. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019. ^ " ' We Now Have A Lot To Look At': Florida Republican Says He's Encouraged By Alabama Abortion Law". WLRN-TV. 19 May 2019. Archived from the original on 28 May 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019. ^ Kesich, Greg (23 June 2019). "The View From Here: Conspiracy theory takes hold in Maine GOP". Portland Press Herald. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019. ^ Ellison, Keith (9 July 2019). "I was the first Muslim ever elected to US Congress — and what I see happening in the UK scares me". Retrieved 10 July 2019. ^ Davis, Mick (10 July 2019). "Our fight against bigotry cannot be fought alongside bigots like Katie Hopkins". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 11 July 2019. ^ "Christchurch mosque killer's theories seeping into mainstream, report warns". 7 July 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019. ^ "Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party has entered the election race". News Corp Australia. 26 April 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019. ^ "New clues emerge of accused New Zealand gunman Tarrant's ties to far right groups". 4 April 2019. Retrieved 24 May 2019. ^ "Fear and loathing inside Fraser Anning's Conservative National Party". 17 May 2019. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019. Last month, Senator Anning’s party made a Facebook post endorsing The Great Replacement, "We need to preserve our ethno-cultural identity, or we will fast become a minority, " Senator Anning’s post said. ^ a b AFP (4 April 2019). ) à l'exigence de la remigration', ajoutent-ils. ^ "Parti de L'In-nocence". In-nocence. Il n’est d’autre chance de retour à la paix civile et à la dignité que la libération du sol national et le retour chez eux des colonisateurs: remigration, Grand Rapatriement. ^ "Le fantasme du "grand remplacement" démographique" [The fantasy of the "great replacement" demographic]. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2019. ^ a b c Eligon, John (7 August 2019). "The El Paso Screed, and the Racist Doctrine Behind It". The New York Times – via ProQuest. ^ a b Darby, Luke (5 August 2019). "How the 'Great Replacement' conspiracy theory has inspired white supremacist killers". The Telegraph. London – via ProQuest. ^ "Taboos fall away as far-right EU candidates breach red line". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 May 2019. ^ a b Arango, Tim; Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas; Benner, Katie (3 August 2019). "Minutes Before El Paso Killing, Hate-Filled Manifesto Appears Online". ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 18 September 2019. Available via The Irish Times Archived 4 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine. Further reading [ edit] Finnsiö, Morgan (15 March 2019). "Myten om det stora utbytet" [The myth of the great exchange]. Expo.
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Christchurch mosque shootings Part of Terrorism in New Zealand and far-right politics in Australia The Al Noor Mosque in August 2019 Al Noor Mosque Linwood Islamic Centre
Location Christchurch, New Zealand Coordinates 43°31′58″S 172°36′42″E / 43. 5329°S 172. 6118°E ( Al Noor Mosque) 43°31′57″S 172°40′21″E / 43. 53239°S 172. 67255°E ( Linwood Islamic Centre) Date 15 March 2019 1:40 p. m. ( NZDT; UTC+13) Target Muslim worshippers Attack type Mass shooting,  terrorist attack,  shooting spree, hate crime Weapons Two semi-automatic rifles, two shotguns Deaths 51  Injured 49 Motive
White supremacy 
Belief in the White genocide conspiracy theory and The Great Replacement conspiracy theory
Accused Brenton Harrison Tarrant Charges 51 counts of murder 40 counts of attempted murder One count of engaging in a terrorist act
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Two consecutive terrorist shooting attacks occurred at mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, during Friday Prayer on 15 March 2019.  The attacks began at the Al Noor Mosque in the suburb of Riccarton at 1:40 p. and continued at Linwood Islamic Centre at about 1:55 p.     The gunman live-streamed the first attack on Facebook. 
The attacks killed 51 people   and injured 49.  Brenton Tarrant, a 28-year-old man from Grafton, New South Wales, Australia, described in media reports as a white supremacist and part of the alt-right, was arrested and initially charged with one murder.     Tarrant was later charged with 51 murders, 40 attempted murders, and engaging in a terrorist act; he pleaded not guilty to all charges, with the trial expected to start on 2 June 2020.   The attacks have been linked to an increase in white supremacism and alt-right extremism globally   observed since about 2015.   Politicians and world leaders condemned the attacks,  and Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern described it as "one of New Zealand's darkest days".  The government established a royal commission of inquiry into its security agencies in the wake of the attacks, which are the deadliest mass shootings in modern New Zealand history.  
Background [ edit]
New Zealand has often been considered a safe country, and has a relatively low level of homicide.  These attacks were the first mass shooting in the country since the Raurimu massacre in 1997.  Prior to that, the deadliest public mass shooting was the 1990 Aramoana massacre, in which 13 people died.  While the country has rarely been associated with the extreme right,  experts have suggested that far-right extremism has been growing in New Zealand.  The sociologist Paul Spoonley has called Christchurch a hotbed for white supremacists and the extreme nationalist movement,  a suggestion rejected by Christchurch MP Gerry Brownlee.  Australia, where the alleged gunman was from, has also seen an increase in xenophobia, racism, and Islamophobia. 
Islam is practised by over 57, 000 New Zealanders (1. 2% of the population),  3, 000 of them in Christchurch and the wider Canterbury region.  The Al Noor Mosque opened in 1985; it was the first mosque in the South Island.  In 2014 and 2015, local press reported an allegation that a congregation member had been radicalised at the mosque.    The Linwood Islamic Centre opened in early 2018. 
Attacks [ edit]
Al Noor Mosque [ edit]
The gunman arrived at the Al Noor Mosque, Riccarton, and began shooting worshippers at around 1:40 p. Police received the first emergency call at 1:41 p.  Between three hundred and five hundred people may have been inside the mosque attending Friday Prayer at the time of the shooting.  A neighbour of the mosque told reporters he saw the gunman flee and drop what appeared to be a firearm in the driveway. 
The gunman live-streamed the first 17 minutes of this attack on Facebook Live, starting with the drive to the Al Noor mosque and ending with the drive away.  Moments before the shooting, he played several songs, including " The British Grenadiers ", a traditional British military marching song, and " Remove Kebab ", a Serb nationalist song celebrating Radovan Karadžić, who was found guilty of genocide against Bosnian Muslims.    One witness said the gunman continued to play "military music" from a portable speaker inside the mosque.  As he approached the front entrance to the mosque, the gunman appeared to be greeted by one of the worshippers, who said "Hello, brother" and was the first victim to be killed in the attacks.   
The gunman spent several minutes inside the mosque, shooting attendees indiscriminately. He first fired 9 shots with a shotgun towards the front entrance before dropping it. He then began using a semi-automatic rifle and opened fire on people inside. He killed three people near the entrance and dozens more inside a prayer hall. A strobe-light attached to one of his weapons was used to disorient victims.  During the attack, a worshipper, Naeem Rashid, charged at him and was shot; Rashid later died from his injuries.     The gunman fired indiscriminately at worshippers in the prayer hall from close range, shooting many of his victims multiple times. He then left the mosque and fired on more people outside. Returning to his vehicle, he retrieved another weapon before returning to the mosque and opening fire again on people who were already wounded and unable to escape. The gunman exited the mosque once more and killed a woman lying wounded on the footpath as she pleaded for help. He then returned to his car and fled the scene   to the music of " Fire " by The Crazy World of Arthur Brown,    in which the singer proclaims: "I am the god of hellfire! "   
He had spent about six minutes at the Al Noor Mosque.  At 1:46 pm, as the gunman drove away from the mosque, the Armed Offenders Squad (AOS) arrived near the scene. Police Commissioner Mike Bush said at this point the gunman was already leaving the area, his car hidden by a bus. At this time, AOS members did not know how many shooters there were and had no information that the offender had left the mosque. At 1:51 pm, first responders arrived at the Al Noor Mosque.  About three minutes after the gunman left the mosque, his vehicle passed by one or more police vehicles responding to the shooting, but remained undetected as he continued on his way to the Linwood Islamic Centre.    
Linwood Islamic Centre [ edit]
A second attack began at about 1:55 p.  at the Linwood Islamic Centre,   a mosque 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of the Al Noor Mosque.  According to a witness, the gunman was initially unable to find the mosque's main door, instead shooting people outside and through a window, alerting those inside. 
The mosque's acting imam credited a worshipper named Abdul Aziz Wahabzada with stopping the attack.     Wahabzada told reporters he had taken a credit card reader and ran out of the mosque, by which time the attacker outside had already shot several people. The attacker was about to retrieve another gun from his car, so Wahabzada threw the reader at him. The gunman took a rifle from his car and fired at Wahabzada, who took cover among nearby cars and retrieved an empty shotgun the gunman had dropped. Despite Wahabzada's attempt to draw the attention of the gunman away from the mosque by shouting "I'm here! ", the gunman entered the mosque and continued firing. When the gunman returned to his car again, Wahabzada threw the shotgun at the car, shattering one of its windows or its windscreen. The gunman then drove away.    
Arrest [ edit]
Early reports indicated "multiple, simultaneous attack[s]",  but later only a single suspect was implicated.   The vehicle of the gunman is seen by a police unit and a pursuit was initiated at 1:57 pm. The suspect was arrested on Brougham Street in Sydenham at 1:59 pm, 18 minutes after the first emergency call.  Video footage taken by an onlooker showed his car had been rammed against the kerb by a police car before his arrest at gunpoint.   The Prime Minister, Jacinda Ardern, said the suspect had been planning to continue the attacks at a third location,  possibly the mosque in Ashburton or the An-Nur Child Care Centre in Hornby.  According to Ardern, "There were two other firearms in the vehicle that the offender was in and it absolutely was his intention to continue with his attack".  Police Commissioner Mike Bush corroborated this, saying police had stopped the suspect on his way to a third location. 
Victims [ edit]
Fifty-one people, 47 male and 4 female, were killed in the attacks: 42 at the Al Noor Mosque, 7 at the Linwood Islamic Centre,  one who died shortly after in Christchurch Hospital, and another who died in the hospital on 2 May, seven weeks after the attacks.    Those killed were between 3 and 77 years old.  The hospital's Chief of Surgery said on 16 March that four had died in ambulances en route to the hospital.  On 17 March, Commissioner Bush said 50 other people had been injured in the attacks, 36 of whom were being treated for gunshot wounds in hospital.   Two were in a serious condition, and a 4-year-old girl was transferred to Starship Hospital in Auckland in a critical condition. 
In the days following the attacks, dozens of people remained missing  and several diplomatic offices and foreign ministries released statements regarding the number of victims from their nations.    Police requested that people listed as missing though actually safe register themselves on the Restoring Family Links website.  The New Zealand Red Cross published a list of missing people which included nationals of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Malaysia, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.  Among the dead listed in New Zealand Police media releases were citizens of Bangladesh, Egypt, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Malaysia, Mauritius, New Zealand, Pakistan and Palestine.     A citizen from Turkey died in the hospital in early May.  Atta Elayyan, an IT entrepreneur and player in the New Zealand futsal team, was among those killed.  
Suspect [ edit]
Police charged Brenton Harrison Tarrant, a 28-year-old Australian man, with murder in relation to the attacks.  At the time of his arrest, he had been living for a few years in Andersons Bay in Dunedin.  He was a member of a South Otago gun club and practised shooting at its range.  He grew up in Grafton, New South Wales, attended Grafton High School,  and worked as a personal trainer in his hometown from 2009 to 2011.  Around 2012, he started visiting a number of countries in Asia and Europe. Police in Bulgaria and Turkey are investigating his visits to their countries.   He became obsessed with terrorist attacks committed by Islamic extremists in 2016 and 2017, started planning an attack about two years prior to the shootings, and chose his targets three months in advance.  Shortly before the attacks, Tarrant's mother received a message from him telling her that she was "about to see and read 'the most terrible things' about him". 
Security officials suspect he had come into contact with far-right organisations about two years before the shooting, while visiting European nations.  He donated 1, 500 euros to Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ), the Austrian branch of Generation Identity (part of the Identitarian movement) in Europe, as well as 2, 200 euros to Génération Identitaire, the French branch of the group, and interacted with IBÖ leader Martin Sellner via email between January 2018 and July 2018, offering to meet in Vienna and a linking to his YouTube channel.    Captivated with sites of battles between Christian European nations and the Ottoman Empire, he went on another series of visits to the Balkans in 2016–2018, with Croatia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Turkey and Bosnia-Herzegovina confirming his presence there in these years.  He posted Balkan nationalist material on social media platforms,  and called for the United States to be weakened in order to prevent events such as the NATO intervention in Kosovo in response to a Serbian ethnic-cleansing campaign against Muslim Albanians.    He said he was against intervention by NATO because he saw the Serbian military as "Christian Europeans attempting to remove these Islamic occupiers from Europe".  
Three years prior to the attacks, he praised Blair Cottrell as a leader of the far-right movements in Australia and made more than 30 comments on the now-deleted " United Patriots Front " and " True Blue Crew " pages. An Australian Broadcasting Corporation team who studied the comments called them "fragments and digital impressions of a well-travelled young man who frequented hate-filled anonymous messaging boards and was deeply engaged in a global alt-right culture. "  A Melbourne man said that in 2016 he filed a police complaint after Tarrant allegedly told him in an online conversation, "I hope one day you meet the rope". He said that the police told him to block Tarrant and did not take a statement from him. The police said that they were unable to locate a complaint. 
Weapons [ edit]
Police recovered five guns at the scene: two semi-automatic weapons, two shotguns and a lever-action firearm.  According to Police Minister Stuart Nash, one of the firearms used by the gunman was an AR-15 style rifle.  Police Commissioner Mike Bush said the gunman held a firearms licence with an "A" endorsement,  and he started buying his arsenal in December 2017, a month after acquiring his licence. According to a city gun store, the gunman bought four firearms and ammunition online.  The shop stated that none of the four were military style weapons, and it is not known yet if these guns were the ones used in the attacks. The shop did not detect anything unusual or extraordinary about the customer.  Additionally, he illegally  replaced the semi-automatic rifles' small, legal magazines with 30-round magazines purchased online.  
The guns and magazines used were covered in white writing naming historical events, people, and motifs related to historical conflicts, wars, and battles between Muslims and European Christians,     as well as the names of recent Islamic terrorist attack victims and the names of far-right attackers.  The markings also included references to "Turkofagos" (Turk eater), a term used by Greeks during the Greek War of Independence and white supremacist slogans such as the anti-Muslim phrase " Remove Kebab " that originated from Serbia and the Fourteen Words.    Apart from the Latin alphabet, writings on the weaponry were in the Cyrillic, Armenian and Georgian alphabets.  On his pack was a Black Sun patch, and two dog tags: one with a Celtic cross, and one with a Slavic swastika design.  Police also found two improvised explosive devices attached to a car; these were defused by the New Zealand Defence Force.  No explosives were found on the gunman. 
Manifesto [ edit]
Tarrant is allegedly the author of a 74-page manifesto titled "The Great Replacement", a reference to the " Great Replacement " and " white genocide " conspiracy theories.   It said that the attacks were planned two years prior, and the location was selected three months prior.  Minutes before the attacks began, the manifesto was emailed to more than 30 recipients, including the prime minister's office and several media outlets,  and links were shared on Twitter and 8chan.  
In the manifesto several anti-immigrant sentiments are expressed, including hate speech against migrants, white supremacist rhetoric, and calls for all non-European immigrants in Europe who are claimed to be "invading his land" to be removed.  The manifesto displays neo-Nazi symbols such as the Black Sun and the Odin's cross. However, the author denies being a Nazi,  describing himself instead as an " ethno-nationalist ",    an " eco-fascist ",     and a " kebab removalist ", in reference to a meme exalting the genocide of Bosnian Muslims that occurred during the Bosnian War.  The author cites Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik and others as an inspiration. He says he supports U. S. president Donald Trump as "a symbol of renewed white identity and common purpose", but not as "a policy maker and leader".  The author says he originally targeted the Al Huda Mosque in Dunedin, but changed his mind after visiting Christchurch, because the Christchurch mosques contained "more adults and a prior history of extremism".  
The manifesto was described by some media outlets as " shitposting "— trolling designed to engender conflict between certain groups and people.    On 23 March 2019, the manifesto was deemed "objectionable" by the Chief Censor of New Zealand, making it unlawful to possess or distribute it in New Zealand.  In August 2019, The New Zealand Herald reported that printed copies of the manifesto were being sold online outside New Zealand, something New Zealand law could not prevent. 
Legal proceedings [ edit]
Tarrant appeared in the Christchurch District Court on 16 March, where he was charged with one count of murder.  The judge ordered the courtroom closed to the public except for accredited media, and allowed the accused to be filmed and photographed on the condition that his face be pixellated.  In court, Tarrant smiled at reporters and made an inverted OK gesture below his waist, said to be a "white power" sign. 
The case was transferred to the High Court and he was remanded in custody, as his lawyer did not seek bail.  He was subsequently transferred to the country's only maximum-security unit at Auckland Prison.  He has lodged a formal complaint regarding his prison conditions, on the grounds that he has no access to newspapers, television, Internet, visitors or phone calls.  On 4 April, police announced they had increased the total number of charges to 89, 50 for murder and 39 for attempted murder, with other charges still under consideration.  At the next hearing on 5 April, he was ordered by the judge to undergo a psychiatric assessment of his mental fitness to stand trial. 
On 21 May 2019, Commissioner Bush announced that a new charge of engaging in a terrorist act had been laid against Tarrant under section 6A of the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002. One murder charge and one attempted murder charge were also added, bringing the total to 51 and 40 respectively. 
On 14 June 2019, Tarrant appeared at the Christchurch High Court via audio-visual link from Auckland Prison. Through his lawyer, he pleaded not guilty to engaging in a terrorist act, 51 counts of murder, and 40 counts of attempted murder. Mental health assessments had indicated no issues regarding his fitness to plead or stand trial. The trial start date was set for 4 May 2020; the Crown prosecutor estimated the trial would last around six weeks.  On 12 September 2019, the trial date was pushed back to 2 June 2020, to avoid coinciding with the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. 
If convicted for murder involving multiple deaths, he faces a mandatory sentence of life imprisonment with the possibility of parole being granted after 17 years. The sentencing judge may, taking into account the aggravating and mitigating factors of the offence, extend the non-parole period or impose life imprisonment with no possibility of parole.  :102–4
On 14 August 2019, it was reported that Tarrant had been able to send seven letters from prison, two to his mother and five to unnamed recipients. One of these letters was subsequently posted on the Internet message boards 4chan and 8chan by a recipient. Minister of Corrections Kelvin Davis and the Department of Corrections were criticised for allowing the distribution of these letters.    On 19 August, Prime Minister Ardern announced that the Government would explore amending the Corrections Act 2004 to further restrict what mail can be received and sent by prisoners.  
Aftermath [ edit]
Emergency services response [ edit]
Commissioner Bush said police were at the first scene within minutes of the incident being reported at 1:42 p.  It was initially understood that the arrest had taken 36 minutes, but it was later clarified that it had taken 21 minutes.  In response to criticism that police were too slow to react, District Commander John Price said: "That is an incredibly fast response time. You had a mobile offender across a large metropolitan city. " 
St. John Ambulance sent 20 ambulances and other vehicles to the mosques.  Most of the wounded were taken to Christchurch Hospital. Forty-eight people with gunshot wounds, including young children, were treated at the hospital,   with some taken to other hospitals within Christchurch and nationally.  Canterbury District Health Board activated its mass-casualty plan.  Paramedics describe a 'river of blood' coming out of the mosque  and having to step over bodies to collect the wounded. 
Police advised all mosques in the country to close until further notice, and sent officers to secure various sites in Christchurch.  All Air New Zealand Link services departing from Christchurch Airport were cancelled as a precaution, due to the absence of security screening at the regional terminal.   Security was increased at Parliament, and public tours of the buildings were cancelled.  In Dunedin, the Armed Offenders Squad searched a house, later reported to have been rented by the alleged gunman,   and cordoned off part of the surrounding street in Andersons Bay because the attacker had indicated on social media that he had originally planned to target the Al Huda Mosque in that city.  
Governmental response [ edit]
For the first time in New Zealand history, the terrorism threat level was raised to high.  Prime Minister Ardern called the incident an "act of extreme and unprecedented violence" on "one of New Zealand's darkest days".    She described it as a "well-planned" terrorist attack.  She said she would render the person accused of the attacks "nameless" and urged the public to speak the victims' names instead.  A meeting of the Officials Committee for Domestic and External Security Co-ordination was convened to coordinate the government's response.  Ardern, who had just left a school climate-strike rally in New Plymouth,  returned to her hotel along with the Minister for Security and Intelligence, Andrew Little, to give a press statement. Ardern cancelled her remaining public engagements scheduled for that day, including opening the WOMAD international arts festival.  She then boarded an RNZAF plane to fly to Wellington to join official meetings taking place at the Beehive.  Ardern issued a directive that flags on "all Government and public buildings" should be flown at half-mast until further notice. 
Cabinet agreed to hold an inquiry into the attacks, and announced on 25 March that it would take the form of a royal commission of inquiry.  Little told Radio New Zealand, "I have given authority to the agencies to do intrusive activities under warrant, the number of those (warrants) I’m not at liberty to disclose. "  He said that the intelligence services usually put 30 to 40 people under monitoring at a time. Although more people than usual were being monitored, he was not willing to reveal how many. He also stated that the operations could be anything from physical surveillance to watching telecommunications activity. 
On 8 April 2019, Prime Minister Ardern confirmed the terms of reference for the Royal Commission of Inquiry, and announced that Supreme Court justice Sir William Young would chair the inquiry. 
In May 2019 the NZ Transport Authority offered to replace any vehicle number plates with the prefix "GUN" (issued in 2013) on request, although they were not withdrawn. 
In mid-October 2019, Prime Minister Ardern awarded bravery awards to the two police officers who had apprehended the alleged shooter Tarrant at the annual Police Association Conference in Wellington. Due to the legal proceedings against Tarrant, the two officers have interim name suppression.  
Other responses in New Zealand [ edit]
Within an hour of the attacks, all schools in the city were placed in " lockdown ".   Some schoolchildren in lockdown still had their mobile phones, and some were able to view the footage of the first attack online.  Student climate strikers at the global School Strike for the Climate rally in Cathedral Square, near the sites of the attacks, were advised by police either to seek refuge in public buildings or go home.   In response to security concerns, the University of Otago postponed its sesquicentennial street parade which had been scheduled for 16 March.  
The third test-cricket match between New Zealand and Bangladesh, scheduled to commence at Hagley Oval in Hagley Park on 16 March, was likewise cancelled due to security concerns.  The Bangladesh team were planning to attend Friday Prayer at the Al Noor Mosque, and were moments from entering the building when the incident began.   The players then fled on foot to Hagley Oval.  Two days later, Canterbury withdrew from their match against Wellington in the Plunket Shield cricket tournament.  Likewise the Super Rugby match between the Crusaders, based in Christchurch, and Highlanders, based in Dunedin, due to be played the next day was cancelled as "a mark of respect for the events".  After the attacks, there were renewed calls to rename the Crusaders team, since its name derives from the medieval Crusades against Muslims.  
Vigil in Wellington for the victims of the Christchurch mosques attacks
Two concerts scheduled to be held in Christchurch on 17 March—by singer-songwriter Bryan Adams and the thrash-metal band Slayer —were also cancelled.  The Polynesian cultural festival Polyfest was cancelled after the shootings, with security concerns cited as the reason.  The music and cultural festival WOMAD went ahead in New Plymouth despite the attacks, with armed police stationed around the festival perimeter, inside the event, and outside artists' hotels. 
The mosques involved in the attacks, and others around the country and the world, have become the focus of vigils, messages, and floral tributes.     The mayor of Christchurch, Lianne Dalziel, encouraged people to lay flowers outside the city's Botanic Gardens.  As a mark of sympathy and solidarity, school pupils and other groups performed haka and waiata to honour those killed in the attacks.   Street gangs including the Mongrel Mob, Black Power, and the King Cobras sent members to mosques around the country to help protect them during prayer time.    One week after the attacks, an open-air Friday prayer service was held in Hagley Park. Broadcast nationally on radio and television, it was attended by 20, 000 people, including Ardern,    who said "New Zealand mourns with you. We are one. " The imam of the Al Noor Mosque thanked New Zealanders for their support and added, "We are broken-hearted but we are not broken. "  A national remembrance service was held on 29 March, a fortnight after the attacks. 
Two officers were credited with the arrest of Tarrant and awarded bravery medals in October 2019. Due to ongoing legal proceedings against Tarrant, their names and images were suppressed at that time.  
Fundraisers and philanthropy [ edit]
An online fundraiser on the fundraising website "Givealittle" started to support victims and their families has, as of 20 March 2019, raised over NZ$ 6. 7 million.   Counting other fundraisers, a combined total of $8. 4 million has been raised for the victims and their families (as of 20 March 2019).  Prime Minister Ardern reiterated that those injured or killed in the shootings and their immediate families are covered by the country's accident-compensation scheme, ACC, which offers compensation for lost income and a $10, 000 funeral grant, among other benefits.  
In late June, it was reported that the Jewish Federation of Greater Pittsburgh had raised more than NZ$967, 500 (US$650, 000) through its New Zealand Islamophobia Attack Fund for the victims of the Christchurch mosque shootings. This amount included $60, 000 raised by Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation. These funds will be donated to the Christchurch Foundation, a registered charity which has been receiving money to support victims of the Christchurch shootings. This philanthropy was inspired by local Muslim support for the Pittsburgh Jewish community following the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting in late October 2018.   
Global response [ edit]
On 15 May 2019, Ardern and French President Emmanuel Macron co-hosted the Christchurch Call summit in Paris,   which called for major technology companies to step up their efforts to combat violent extremism.  The accord's founding signatory nations were Australia, Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Indonesia, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In addition, the technology companies Amazon, DailyMotion, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, Qwant, Twitter and YouTube also signed. 
Related arrests and incidents [ edit]
New Zealand [ edit]
Police arrested four people on 15 March in relation to the attacks,    including a woman and a man, after finding a firearm in a vehicle in which they were travelling together.  The woman was released uncharged, but the man was held in custody and was charged with a firearms offence.  Additionally, a 30-year-old man said he was arrested when he arrived, unarmed, at Papanui High School to pick up his 13-year-old brother-in-law. He was in camouflage clothing, which he said he habitually wore.  He said police gave him a verbal warning for disorderly behaviour.  He is seeking compensation for a wrongful arrest. The actions were defended by police, who mentioned the threat level after the massacre and that they had to deal with reports possibly related to the attacks. 
Outside New Zealand [ edit]
On 18 March 2019, the Australian Federal Police 's NSW Joint Counter Terrorism Team conducted raids on the homes of suspected gunman's sister and mother near Coffs Harbour and Maclean in New South Wales. These raids were carried out by Australian Police to assist New Zealand Police with their investigation into the shootings. The gunman's sister and mother reportedly cooperated with Australian police.  
A 24-year-old man from Oldham, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom was arrested on 16 March for sending Facebook posts in support of the shootings.  
On 20 March, an employee for Transguard, a company based in the United Arab Emirates, was fired by his company and deported for making comments supporting the shootings as well.  
In Canada, neo-Nazis Paul Fromm and Kevin Goudreau were put under investigation after the former shared the shooter's manifesto on the website of his organisation Canadian Association for Free Expression.  
A 22-year-old self-described " Folk Odinist " and founder of a Facebook group known as Odin's Warriors, Thomas Alan Bolin, and his cousin Austin Witkowski attempted to commit a copycat attack in Baltimore, Maryland. Under the aliases "Peter Vincent" and "Ragnar Odinson", the duo sent threatening messages on Facebook Messenger and planned to buy food, ammunition, and firearms in preparation for a similar attack. Bolin also praised the shooter's live-stream and manifesto, saying "Brugh dude killed 40 Muslims". Bolin was later convicted of lying to the FBI for claiming he did not possess any firearms. 
Inspired attacks [ edit]
Nine days after the attack, an arson attack against a mosque in California was committed at Escondido. Police found graffiti on the mosque's driveway that referenced the Christchurch shootings, leading the police to consider the fire as a terrorist attack.   The Poway synagogue shooting took place on 27 April 2019, killing one person and injuring three others. The perpetrator, John T. Earnest, claimed responsibility for the previous mosque fire and praised the Christchurch shootings in a manifesto. Both the perpetrator and Tarrant were radicalized on 8chan 's /pol/ discussion board. 
On 3 August 2019, Patrick Crusius killed 22 people and injured 24 others in a mass shooting at a Walmart in El Paso, Texas. In a manifesto posted to 8chan's /pol/ board, Crusius expressed support for and inspiration by the Christchurch mosque shootings.  
On 10 August 2019, Philip Manshaus attacked a mosque in Bærum, Norway, injuring one person. He also attempted to livestream the attack on Facebook. Manshaus had made posts online referring to Tarrant as a saint and posted a meme depicting Tarrant, Crusius, and Earnest as "heroes". 
Reactions [ edit]
Several world leaders spoke and offered condolences after the attacks.
World leaders [ edit]
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern visited members of the Muslim community at the Phillipstown Community Hub in Christchurch the day after the attacks.
Queen Elizabeth II, New Zealand's head of state, said she was "deeply saddened" by the attacks.   Other politicians and world leaders also condemned the attacks,  [note 1] with some attributing them to rising Islamophobia.   The prime minister of Pakistan, Imran Khan, announced that Pakistani emigrant Naeem Rashid, who charged at the gunman and died as a result of the attack on the Al Noor Mosque, would be posthumously honoured with a national award for his courage.  The prime minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, announced that "In the future, whenever we send our cricket team abroad, we will do that after examining and reviewing the security matters of the host countries" and added that Bangladesh had always provided highest security to visiting foreign teams.  Serbia 's Foreign Minister Ivica Dačić condemned the Christchurch attack and said that the shooter "has nothing to do with Serbia. "  Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić criticized media for implying that Serbs should be blamed for the shootings. 
The president of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, showed footage taken by the attacker to his supporters at campaign rallies for upcoming local elections.   The New Zealand and Australian governments,  as well as Turkey's main opposition party, have criticised his actions.  U. President Donald Trump condemned the "horrible massacre".  When asked after the attacks if he thought white nationalists were a growing threat around the world, Trump replied "I don't really. I think it's a small group of people that have very, very serious problems. It's certainly a terrible thing. " 
Far-right [ edit]
Two New Zealand-based anti-immigration groups, the Dominion Movement and the New Zealand National Front, quickly condemned the attacks, distanced themselves from the perpetrator, and shut down their websites.  A number of 8chan users praised the attacks and made photo and video edits of the shooting.   The United Kingdom's domestic intelligence service, MI5, launched an inquiry into the gunman's possible links to the British far right.  Some extremists were inspired by Tarrant and praised him as a "saint" online and committed attacks of their own in Poway, El Paso and Norway. 
Islamic groups [ edit]
Ahmed Bhamji, chair of the largest mosque in New Zealand,  spoke at a rally on 23 March in front of one thousand people.   He claimed that Mossad, the Israeli foreign intelligence agency, was behind the attack. The claim has been widely described as an unfounded, antisemitic conspiracy theory. The chairman of the Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand said that Bhamji's statement did not represent other New Zealand Muslims, but Bhamji defended his statements.   
Sri Lanka bombings [ edit]
According to Sri Lankan State Defence Minister Ruwan Wijewardene, the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings on 21 April 2019 were retaliation for the Christchurch attack.     However, some analysts believe the attacks to have been planned before the Christchurch attack.   Linkage between the two attacks was questioned by New Zealand's government. Prime Minister Ardern stated she was not aware of any intelligence linking the Sri Lankan attacks to the Christchurch shootings. 
Video distribution [ edit]
Copies of the live-streamed video were reposted on many platforms and file-sharing websites, including Facebook,  LiveLeak, and YouTube.  Police, Muslim-advocacy groups and government agencies urged anyone who found the footage to take it down or report it.  The New Zealand Office of Film and Literature Classification quickly classified the video as "objectionable", making it a criminal offence in the country to distribute, copy, or exhibit the video, with potential penalties of up to 14 years' imprisonment for an individual, or up to $100, 000 in fines for a corporation.   
Arrests and prosecutions [ edit]
At least eight people have been arrested for possessing or sharing the video or manifesto, most subject to name suppression to prevent either threats against them or support of freedom of expression online.  An 18-year-old man was arrested and charged with inciting racial disharmony under the Human Rights Act.  Although authorities said he was not involved in the shootings,  he was denied bail, and faces up to 14 years in prison if convicted on all charges.  He appeared in Christchurch District Court on 18 March faced with a charge of distributing the video, and a second charge of making an objectionable publication by posting, between 8 and 15 March, a photo of the Al Noor Mosque bearing the message "target acquired", as well as other chat messages "inciting extreme violence".  
On 19 March, an Australian man who had posted on social media praising the Christchurch shootings, was indicted on one count of aggravated possession of a firearm without a licence and four counts of using or possessing a prohibited weapon. He was released on bail on the condition that he stay offline.    
On 20 March, Christchurch man Philip Arps was indicted on two charges of sharing a live-stream of the mosque shootings under the Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993. He was denied bail and was remanded in custody until his next court appearance, scheduled for 15 April. His company also attracted criticism for its use of Nazi symbols.     Arps subsequently pleaded guilty to two charges of distributing video footage of the Al Noor attack, one count of sharing the accused live-stream footage to approximately 30 people on Facebook, and requesting that another person add a cross-hair and kill count to the footage. In June 2019, he was sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment.   On 27 August, Arps had his appeal against his sentence dismissed.   Arps had also expressed neo-Nazi views and sent letters advocating violence against New Zealand politicians.   In late January 2020, Arps was released from prison under strict conditions including wearing a GPS electronic monitor, avoiding Muslims and Muslim buildings and prayer rooms, and not owning or touching firearms.  
On 2 July 2019, a 16-year-old boy pleaded guilty to possessing footage of the Christchurch shootings. Though he was released on bail to appear at a Family Group Conference on 30 July, he was subsequently returned to prison on 9 July for breaching his bail conditions.   On 12 July, a Dunedin man appeared in the Dunedin District Court on the charge of possessing footage of the Christchurch mosque shootings among other charges. He was remanded in custody. 
On 12 February 2020, a Palmerston North man was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment for posting footage of the Christchurch shooting on his Facebook page. 
On 26 February, a Christchurch man was jailed for nearly two years for doctoring footage of the mosque shootings with a Call of Duty tagline for white supremacist Philip Arps two days after the attacks. 
On 4 March 2020, a 19-year old Christchurch man was arrested for allegedly making a terror threat against Al Noor mosque on an encrypted social media platform.   Media reports subsequently identified the man as Sam Brittenden, a member of the White supremacist group Action Zealandia.  
Media outlets [ edit]
Several media organisations in Australia and tabloid-news websites in the UK broadcast parts of the video, up to the point the gunman entered the building, despite pleas from the New Zealand Police not to show it.   Sky Television New Zealand temporarily stopped its syndication of Sky News Australia after that network showed the footage, and said it was working with Sky News Australia to prevent further displays of the video.  At least three Internet service providers in New Zealand blocked access to 8chan and other sites related to the attacks,  and have temporarily blocked other sites hosting the video such as 4chan, LiveLeak, and Mega until they comply with requests to take down copies of the video.  The administrator of the online message board Kiwi Farms refused a New Zealand Police request for the data of users who made posts related to the suspect and the attacks.  
Social media sites including Facebook, YouTube, Reddit, and Twitter said they were working diligently to remove the video from their platforms and would also remove anything posted in support of the attacks.   According to Facebook, no complaints were made about the video until 12 minutes after the live-stream ended;  the original video from the attacker himself had been viewed fewer than 200 times before Facebook was notified of its content, and it had been viewed only 4, 000 times before it was removed, which happened within minutes of notification. Facebook created a digital hash fingerprint to detect further uploads, however by this point the video had been propagated on other sites.  Facebook said it had blocked 1. 5 million uploads of the video and images from it in the day after the attacks, including edited versions, with most blocking occurring through use of the fingerprint to prevent visibility.   Reddit banned "subreddits" named " WatchPeopleDie " and " Gore ", saying threads there had glorified the attacks, in violation of user agreements.    Microsoft, in light of how social media sites handled the content related to the shooting, proposed the establishment of industry-wide standards that would flag such content quickly, and, in the wake of similar major events, operate a joint virtual command center to manage and control the spread of such information via social media. 
Despite the networks' attempts to self-police, New Zealand officials and other world leaders have asked them to take responsibility for extremist content posted on their services.  Australia introduced legislation that would fine content providers and potentially imprison their executives if they do not remove violent imagery of these types of attacks.  The French Council of the Muslim Faith filed a lawsuit against Facebook and YouTube, accusing the companies of "broadcasting a message with violent content abetting terrorism, or of a nature likely to seriously violate human dignity and liable to be seen by a minor".  Facebook has contested the lawsuit, stating, "Acts of terror and hate speech have no place on Facebook, and our thoughts are with the families of the victims and the entire community affected by this tragedy. We have taken many steps to remove this video from our platform, we are cooperating with the authorities". 
International [ edit]
Stuart Bender of Curtin University in Perth noted that the use of live video as an integral part of the attacks "makes [them] a form of 'performance crime' where the act of video recording and/or streaming the violence by the perpetrator is a central component of the violence itself, rather than being incidental. "  Just before carrying out the attacks, the gunman said to-camera, "Remember lads, subscribe to PewDiePie ", referring to the most subscribed YouTuber at the time, Felix Kjellberg, who goes by the alias PewDiePie.    The apparent intent, as with the manifesto, was to spread news of the attacks—in this case to Kjellberg's followers, who number in the tens of millions.   Kjellberg later called for the phrase to be discontinued.  In response, Kjellberg tweeted, "Just heard news of the devastating reports from New Zealand Christchurch. I feel absolutely sickened having my name uttered by this person. My heart and thoughts go out to the victims, families and everyone affected by this tragedy. " 
Gun laws [ edit]
Gun laws in New Zealand came under scrutiny in the aftermath, specifically the legality of military-style semi-automatic rifles  compared to Australia, which banned them after the Port Arthur massacre, in 1996.  In 2018, for example, it was reported that of the estimated 1. 5 million firearms in New Zealand, 15, 000 were registered Military Style Semi-Automatic weapons as well as many more unregistered A-Category semi-automatics, however estimates of how many A-Category semi-automatic weapons were out there vary but the main estimate is anywhere between 50, 000 and 170, 000.  As Philip Alpers of noted, "New Zealand is almost alone with the United States in not registering 96 percent of its firearms... one can assume that the ease of obtaining these firearms may have been a factor in his decision to commit the crime in Christchurch. "   Cabinet, however, remains undecided on the creation of a register.   
Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced: "Our gun laws will change, now is the time... People will be seeking change, and I am committed to that. "  She continued, "There have been attempts to change our laws in 2005, 2012 and after an inquiry in 2017. Now is the time for change. "  Attorney-General David Parker was later quoted as saying that the government would ban semi-automatic guns,  but subsequently backtracked, saying that the government had not yet committed to anything and that regulations around semi-automatic weapons was "one of the issues" the government would consider. 
The day after the attacks, some gun-store owners reported an increase in sales, particularly of semi-automatic weapons, in response to the prospect of stricter laws. 
The New Zealand auction website Trade Me banned the sale of semi-automatic weapons on its platform,  and some gun owners responded to the attacks by voluntarily handing in their weapons to police. 
At a press conference on 18 March, Ardern said details of the proposed reforms would be given by 25 March.  On 21 March, she announced a ban, adding that she was working to have legislation in place as early as 11 April. As a transitional measure, from 3:00 pm that day, some semi-automatic rifles and shotguns were classified as requiring the owner to hold a licence with an "E" endorsement. "After a reasonable period for returns, those who continue to possess these firearms will be in contravention of the law, " Radio New Zealand reported. A " gun buy-back " scheme was also considered. 
The Arms (Prohibited Firearms, Magazines, and Parts) Amendment Act 2019 was introduced in the House of Representatives on 1 April, and passed its first reading the following day.  The final reading was passed on 10 April, supported by all parties in Parliament except ACT, and it became law by the end of the week.    All legally obtained semiautomatic and military-grade firearms and their relevant ammunition were able be handed over to police in a buy-back scheme.    On July 13, the gun buy-back scheme was initiated,  where 607 collection points for owners to turn in their prohibited firearms were held.  On December 20, the gun buy-back scheme ended.  Provisional data from police as of December 21 showed that a total of 33, 619 hand-ins had been completed, 56, 250 firearms had been collected (51, 342 as buy-back and 4, 908 under amnesty), 2, 717 firearms has been modified, and 194, 245 parts had been collected (187, 995 as buy-back and 6, 250 under amnesty).  Police Minister Stuart Nash hailed the buy-back scheme as a success.  Nicole McKee, the spokeswoman of the Council of Licensed Firearms Owners, said the buyback had been a failure, and claimed that there are 170, 000 prohibited guns in New Zealand and that "50, 000 is not a number to boast about". 
See also [ edit]
Halle and Landsberg attacks
Christchurch Call to Action Summit
List of massacres in New Zealand
List of Islamophobic incidents
List of terrorist incidents in March 2019
List of rampage killers (religious, political or racial crimes)
Notes [ edit]
^ Australian prime minister Scott Morrison expressed support for New Zealand and condemned the shootings as a "violent, extremist, right-wing terrorist attack. " He confirmed that an Australian had been detained as a suspect in connection with the attack.    British prime minister Theresa May described the incident as a "horrifying terrorist attack", and said "my thoughts are with all of those affected by this sickening act of violence".  Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau expressed "deepest condolences" and said "Canada remembers too well the sorrow we felt when a senseless attack on the Centre culturel islamique de Québec in Ste-Foy claimed the lives of many innocent people gathered in prayer", referencing the Quebec City mosque shooting in 2017.  U. president Donald Trump extended his "warmest sympathy and best the people of New Zealand", and he and the FBI offered them assistance     while security at mosques around the United States was increased.   Russian president Vladimir Putin sent Prime Minister Ardern a message of condolence, saying "This attack on civilians who gathered for prayer is shocking in its violence and cynicism".  The lighting of the Ostankino Tower in Moscow, the tallest free-standing structure in Europe, was off for one hour as a sign of mourning.  King Salman of Saudi Arabia said: "The heinous massacre of the worshipers at mosques in New Zealand is a terrorist act. "  He also called on the international community to confront hate speech and terrorism.   Cardinal Pietro Parolin, the Secretary of State of Vatican City, sent a letter of condolences on behalf of Pope Francis, assuring the Muslim community in New Zealand of the Pope's, "heartfelt solidarity in the wake of these attacks, " and stating that, "His Holiness prays for the healing of the injured, the consolation of those who grieve the loss of their loved ones, and for all affected by this tragedy. " 
Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India expressed "deep shock and sadness" over the deaths and expressed India's solidarity with the people of New Zealand.  Condolences were also provided by Azerbaijani,  Bangladeshi,  Bruneian,  Cambodian,  Chinese,  Fijian,  Filipino,  Hungarian,  Indonesian,  Japanese,  South Korean,  Kosovar,  Malaysian,  Pakistani,  Singaporean,  Taiwanese,  Thai,  Turkish,  and Vietnamese  leaders.
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External links [ edit]
Author: Tarrant Brenton Title: The Great Replacement Towards a new society We march ever forwards Year: 2019 Link download: Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no lightning they Do not go gentle into that good night. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. And you, my father, there on the sad height, Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night. Rage, rage against the dying of the light....
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